|Chancellor of Germany|
|Assumed office |
22 November 2005
|Preceded by||Gerhard Schröder|
|Leader of the Christian Democratic Union|
10 April 2000 – 7 December 2018
|Preceded by||Wolfgang Schäuble|
|Succeeded by||Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer|
|Leader of the Opposition|
22 September 2002 – 22 November 2005
|Preceded by||Friedrich Merz|
|Succeeded by||Wolfgang Gerhardt|
|Bundestag Leader of the CDU/CSU Group|
22 September 2002 – 21 November 2005
|Preceded by||Friedrich Merz|
|Succeeded by||Volker Kauder|
|Member of the Bundestag |
20 December 1990 – TBD
|Preceded by||Constituency established|
|Succeeded by||Anna Kassautzki|
Angela Dorothea Kasner
17 July 1954
Hamburg, West Germany
|Political party||DA (1989–1990)|
(m. 1977; div. 1982)
Angela Dorothea Merkel (pronounced [ˈaŋɡela doʁoˈteːa ˈmɛʁkl̩] (listen)) MdB (née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as the chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as the leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2005 and as the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 2000 to 2018. A member of the CDU, Merkel is the first female chancellor of Germany. During her tenure as Chancellor, Merkel has been frequently referred to as the de facto leader of the European Union and the most powerful woman in the world.
Merkel was born in Hamburg in then-West Germany, moving to East Germany as an infant when her father, a Lutheran clergyman, received a pastorate in Perleberg. She obtained a doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986 and worked as a research scientist until 1989. Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, briefly serving as deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected Government of East Germany led by Lothar de Maizière. Following German reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. As the protégée of Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Merkel was appointed as Minister for Women and Youth in 1991, later becoming Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in 1994. After the CDU lost the 1998 federal election, Merkel was elected CDU General Secretary, before becoming the party's first female leader and the first female Leader of the Opposition two years later, in the aftermath of a donations scandal that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble.
Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed to succeed Gerhard Schröder as Chancellor of Germany, leading a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party the Christian Social Union (CSU) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Merkel was the first woman to be elected as Chancellor, and the first Chancellor since German reunification to have been raised in the former East Germany. At the 2009 federal election, the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote, and Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the Free Democratic Party (FDP). At the 2013 federal election, Merkel's CDU won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag. At the 2017 federal election, Merkel led the CDU to become the largest party for the fourth time; Merkel formed a third grand coalition with the SPD and was sworn in for a joint-record fourth term as Chancellor on 14 March 2018.
In foreign policy, Merkel has emphasised international cooperation, both in the context of the European Union and NATO, and strengthening transatlantic economic relations. In 2008, Merkel served as President of the European Council and played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration. Merkel played a crucial role in managing the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the European debt crisis. She negotiated the 2008 European Union stimulus plan focusing on infrastructure spending and public investment to counteract the Great Recession. In domestic policy, Merkel's Energiewende program has focused on future energy development, seeking to phase out nuclear power in Germany, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and increase renewable energy sources. Reforms to the Bundeswehr which abolished conscription, health care reform, and her government's response to the 2010s European migrant crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany have been major issues during her chancellorship. She has served as senior G7 leader since 2014, and previously from 2011 to 2012. In 2014 she became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union. In October 2018, Merkel announced that she would stand down as Leader of the CDU at the party convention, and would not seek a fifth term as Chancellor in the 2021 federal election.
Background and early life
Revolution of 1989
Leader of the Christian Democratic Union
First Ministry and term
Second Ministry and term
Third Ministry and term
Fourth Ministry and term
Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in 1954, in Hamburg, West Germany, the daughter of Horst Kasner (1926–2011; né Kaźmierczak), a Lutheran pastor and a native of Berlin, and his wife Herlind (1928–2019; née Jentzsch), born in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland), a teacher of English and Latin. She has two younger siblings, Marcus Kasner, a physicist, and Irene Kasner, an occupational therapist. In her childhood and youth, Merkel was known among her peers by the nickname "Kasi", derived from her last name Kasner.
Merkel is of German and Polish descent. Her paternal grandfather, Ludwik Kasner, was a German policeman of Polish ethnicity, who had taken part in Poland's struggle for independence in the early 20th century. He married Merkel's grandmother Margarethe, a German from Berlin, and relocated to her hometown where he worked in the police. In 1930, they Germanized the Polish name Kaźmierczak to Kasner. Merkel's maternal grandparents were the Danzig politician Willi Jentzsch, and Gertrud Alma née Drange, a daughter of the city clerk of Elbing (now Elbląg, Poland) Emil Drange. Since the mid 1990s, Merkel has publicly mentioned her Polish heritage on several occasions and described herself as a quarter Polish, but her Polish roots became better known as a result of a 2013 biography.
Religion played a key role in the Kasner family's migration from West Germany to East Germany. Merkel's paternal grandfather was originally Catholic but the entire family converted to Lutheranism during the childhood of her father, who later studied Lutheran theology in Heidelberg and Hamburg. In 1954, when Angela was just three months old, her father received a pastorate at the church in Quitzow [de] (a quarter of Perleberg in Brandenburg), which was then in East Germany. The family moved to Templin and Merkel grew up in the countryside 90 km (56 mi) north of East Berlin.
In 1968, Merkel joined the Free German Youth (FDJ), the official communist youth movement sponsored by the ruling Marxist–Leninist Socialist Unity Party of Germany. Membership was nominally voluntary, but those who did not join found it difficult to gain admission to higher education. She did not participate in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, however, which was common in East Germany. Instead, she was confirmed. During this time, she participated in several compulsory courses on Marxism-Leninism with her grades only being regarded as "sufficient". Merkel later said that "Life in the GDR was sometimes almost comfortable in a certain way, because there were some things one simply couldn't influence."
Education and scientific career
At school Merkel learned to speak Russian fluently, and was awarded prizes for her proficiency in Russian and mathematics. She was the best in her class in mathematics and Russian, and completed her school education with the best possible average Abitur grade 1.0.
Merkel continued her education at Karl Marx University, Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978. While a student, she participated in the reconstruction of the ruin of the Moritzbastei, a project students initiated to create their own club and recreation facility on campus. Such an initiative was unprecedented in the GDR of that period, and initially resisted by the university. With backing of the local leadership of the SED party, the project was allowed to proceed.
Near the end of her studies, Merkel sought an assistant professorship at an engineering school. As a condition for getting the job, Merkel was told she would need to agree to report on her colleagues to officers of the Ministry for State Security (Stasi). Merkel declined, using the excuse that she could not keep secrets well enough to be an effective spy.
Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990. At first she and her husband squatted in Mitte. At the Academy of Sciences, she became a member of its FDJ secretariat. According to her former colleagues, she openly propagated Marxism as the secretary for "Agitation and Propaganda". However, Merkel has denied this claim and stated that she was secretary for culture, which involved activities like obtaining theatre tickets and organising talks by visiting Soviet authors. She stated: "I can only rely on my memory, if something turns out to be different, I can live with that."
After being awarded a doctorate (Dr. rer. nat.) for her thesis on quantum chemistry in 1986, she worked as a researcher and published several papers. In 1986, she was able to travel freely to West Germany to attend a congress; she also participated in a multi-week language course in Donetsk, in the then-Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Early political career
Democratic Awakening, 1989–1990
The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 served as the catalyst for Merkel's political career. Although she did not participate in the crowd celebrations the night the wall came down, one month later Merkel became involved in the growing democracy movement, joining the new party Democratic Awakening.
Alliance for Germany, 1990
Following the first (and only) multi-party election in East Germany, she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière. Merkel had impressed de Maiziere with her adept dealing with journalists questioning the role of a party leader, Wolfgang Schnur, as an "informal co-worker" with the homeland security services.
Merger of Democratic Alliance into CDU, 1990
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2020)
In April 1990, Democratic Awakening merged with the East German Christian Democratic Union, which in turn merged with its western counterpart after reunification.
Minister for Women and Youth, 1991–1994
In the German federal election of 1990, the first to be held following reunification, Merkel successfully stood for election to the Bundestag in the parliamentary constituency of Stralsund – Nordvorpommern – Rügen in north Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. She has won re-election from this constituency (renamed, with slightly adjusted borders, Vorpommern-Rügen – Vorpommern-Greifswald I in 2003) at the seven federal elections held since then. Almost immediately following her entry into parliament, Merkel was appointed by Chancellor Helmut Kohl to serve as Minister for Women and Youth in the federal cabinet.
Minister for Environment, 1994–1998
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2020)
In 1994, she was promoted to the position of Minister for the Environment and Nuclear Safety, which gave her greater political visibility and a platform on which to build her personal political career. As one of Kohl's protégées and his youngest Cabinet Minister, she was frequently referred to by Kohl as mein Mädchen ("my girl").
General Secretary of the CDU, 1998–2000
After the Kohl Government was defeated at the 1998 election, Merkel was appointed Secretary-General of the CDU, a key position as the party was no longer part of the federal government. Merkel oversaw a string of CDU election victories in six out of seven state elections in 1999, breaking the long-standing SPD-Green hold on the Bundesrat. Following a party funding scandal that compromised many leading figures of the CDU – including Kohl himself and his successor as CDU Leader, Wolfgang Schäuble – Merkel criticised her former mentor publicly and advocated a fresh start for the party without him.
Chairperson of the CDU, 2000–2018
She was subsequently elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first female leader of a German party on 10 April 2000. Her election surprised many observers, as her personality offered a contrast to the party she had been elected to lead; Merkel is a centrist Protestant originating from predominantly Protestant northern Germany, while the CDU is a male-dominated, socially conservative party with strongholds in western and southern Germany, and its Bavarian sister party, the CSU, has deep Catholic roots.
Following Merkel's election as CDU Leader, the CDU was not able to win in subsequent state elections. As early as February 2001 her rival Friedrich Merz had made clear he intended to become Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's main challenger in the 2002 election. Merkel's own ambition to become Chancellor was well-known, but she lacked the support of most Minister-presidents and other grandees within her own party. She was subsequently outmaneuvered politically by CSU Leader Edmund Stoiber, to whom she eventually ceded the privilege of challenging Schröder. He went on to squander a large lead in opinion polls to lose the election by a razor-thin margin in an election campaign that was dominated by the Iraq War. While Chancellor Schröder made clear he would not join the war in Iraq, Merkel and the CDU-CSU supported the invasion of Iraq.
Leader of the Opposition, 2002–2005
After Stoiber's defeat in 2002, in addition to her role as CDU Leader, Merkel became Leader of the Opposition in the Bundestag; Friedrich Merz, who had held the post prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel. Stoiber voted for Merkel.
Merkel supported a substantial reform agenda for Germany's economic and social system, and was considered more pro-market than her own party (the CDU). She advocated German labour law changes, specifically removing barriers to laying off employees and increasing the allowed number of work hours in a week. She argued that existing laws made the country less competitive, because companies could not easily control labour costs when business is slow.
Merkel advocated a strong transatlantic partnership and German-American friendship. In the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel came out in favour of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. She criticised the government's support for the accession of Turkey to the European Union and favoured a "privileged partnership" instead. In doing so, she reflected public opinion that grew more hostile toward Turkish membership of the European Union.
2005 national election
On 30 May 2005, Merkel won the CDU/CSU nomination as challenger to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of the SPD in the 2005 national elections. Her party began the campaign with a 21-point lead over the SPD in national opinion polls, although her personal popularity lagged behind that of the incumbent. However, the CDU/CSU campaign suffered when Merkel, having made economic competence central to the CDU's platform, confused gross and net income twice during a televised debate. She regained some momentum after she announced that she would appoint Paul Kirchhof, a former judge at the German Constitutional Court and leading fiscal policy expert, as Minister of Finance.
Merkel and the CDU lost ground after Kirchhof proposed the introduction of a flat tax in Germany, again undermining the party's broad appeal on economic affairs and convincing many voters that the CDU's platform of deregulation was designed to benefit only the rich. This was compounded by Merkel's proposal to increase VAT to reduce Germany's deficit and fill the gap in revenue from a flat tax. The SPD were able to increase their support simply by pledging not to introduce flat taxes or increase VAT. Although Merkel's standing recovered after she distanced herself from Kirchhof's proposals, she remained considerably less popular than Schröder, and the CDU's lead was down to 9% on the eve of the election.
On the eve of the election, Merkel was still favored to win a decisive victory based on opinion polls. On 18 September 2005, Merkel's CDU/CSU and Schröder's SPD went head-to-head in the national elections, with the CDU/CSU winning 35.2% (CDU 27.8%/CSU 7.5%) of the second votes to the SPD's 34.2%. The result was so close, both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory. Neither the SPD-Green coalition nor the CDU/CSU and its preferred coalition partners, the Free Democratic Party, held enough seats to form a majority in the Bundestag. A grand coalition between the CDU/CSU and SPD faced the challenge that both parties demanded the chancellorship. However, after three weeks of negotiations, the two parties reached a deal whereby Merkel would become Chancellor and the SPD would hold 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet.
Chancellor of Germany, 2005–present
|Chancellorship of Angela Merkel|
22 November 2005 – present
|Cabinet||1st Merkel cabinet |
2nd Merkel cabinet
3rd Merkel cabinet
4th Merkel cabinet
|Party||Christian Democratic Union|
|Election||2005, 2009, 2013, 2017|
|Appointed by||Appointed by: President of Germany |
Sworn in by the: President of the Bundestag
|Seat||Federal Chancellery (primary) |
Palais Schaumburg (secondary)
First CDU–SPD grand coalition, 2005–2009
The First Merkel cabinet was sworn in at 16:00 CET on 22 November 2005. On 31 October 2005, after the defeat of his favoured candidate for the position of Secretary General of the SPD, Franz Müntefering indicated that he would resign as party chairman, which he did in November. Ostensibly responding to this, Edmund Stoiber (CSU), who was originally nominated as Minister for Economics and Technology, announced his withdrawal on 1 November 2005. While this was initially seen as a blow to Merkel's attempt at forming a viable coalition, the manner in which Stoiber withdrew earned him much ridicule and severely undermined his position as a Merkel rival. Separate conferences of the CDU, CSU, and SPD approved the proposed Cabinet on 14 November 2005. The second Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 28 October 2009.
On 22 November 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD. The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November 2005. Merkel was elected Chancellor by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on 22 November 2005, but 51 members of the governing coalition voted against her.
Reports at the time indicated that the grand coalition would pursue a mix of policies, some of which differed from Merkel's political platform as leader of the opposition and candidate for Chancellor. The coalition's intent was to cut public spending whilst increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%), social insurance contributions and the top rate of income tax.
When announcing the coalition agreement, Merkel stated that the main aim of her government would be to reduce unemployment, and that it was this issue on which her government would be judged.
CDU–FDP coalition, 2009–2013
Her party was re-elected in 2009 with an increased number of seats, and could form a governing coalition with the FDP. This term was overshadowed by the European debt crisis. Conscription in Germany was abolished and the Bundeswehr became a volunteer military. Unemployment sank below the mark of 3 million unemployed people.
In the election of September 2013, Merkel won one of the most decisive victories in German history, achieving the best result for the CDU/CSU since reunification and coming within five seats of the first absolute majority in the Bundestag since 1957. However, their preferred coalition partner, the FDP, failed to enter parliament for the first time since 1949, being below the minimum of 5% of votes required to enter parliament.
Second CDU–SPD grand coalition 2013–2017
The CDU/CSU turned to the SPD to form the third grand coalition in postwar German history and the second under Merkel's leadership. The third Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 17 December 2013.
Midway through her second term, Merkel's approval plummeted in Germany, resulting in heavy losses in state elections for her party. An August 2011 poll found her coalition had only 36% support compared to a rival potential coalition's 51%. However, she scored well on her handling of the recent euro crisis (69% rated her performance as good rather than poor), and her approval rating reached an all-time high of 77% in February 2012 and again in July 2014.
Merkel's approval rating dropped to 54% in October 2015, during the European migrant crisis, the lowest since 2011. According to a poll conducted after terror attacks in Germany Merkel's approval rating dropped to 47% (August 2016). Half of Germans did not want her to serve a fourth term in office compared to 42% in favor. However, according to a poll taken in October 2016, her approval rating had been found to have risen again, 54% of Germans were found to be satisfied with work of Merkel as Chancellor. According to another poll taken in November 2016, 59% were to found to be in favour of a renewed Chancellor candidature of Merkel in 2017. According to a poll carried out just days after the 2016 Berlin truck attack, in which it was asked which political leader(s) Germans trust to solve their country's problems; 56% named Merkel, 39% Seehofer (CSU), 35% Gabriel (SPD), 32% Schulz (SPD), 25% Özdemir (Greens), 20% Wagenknecht (Left Party), 15% Lindner (FDP), and just 10% for Petry (AfD).
In the 2017 federal election, Merkel led her party to victory for the fourth time. Both CDU/CSU and SPD received a significantly lower proportion of the vote than they did in 2013, and attempted to form a coalition with the FDP and Greens. The collapse of these talks led to stalemate. The German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier subsequently appealed successfully to the SPD to change their hard stance and to agree to a third grand coalition with the CDU/CSU.
A YouGov survey published in late December 2017 found that just 36 percent of all respondents wanted Merkel to stay at the helm until 2021, while half of those surveyed voters called for a change at the top before the end of the legislature.
Third CDU–SPD grand coalition, 2018–present
The Fourth Merkel cabinet is the incumbent government of Germany, and was sworn in on 14 March 2018. The negotiations that led to a Grand Coalition agreement with the Social Democrats (SPD) were the longest in German post-war history, lasting almost six months.
In October 2018, Merkel announced that she had decided not to run for re-election in the 2021 federal election. In August 2019, 67% of Germans wanted Merkel to stay till the end of her term in 2021, while only 29% wanted her to step down earlier.
In September 2021, she referred to her party after she leaves the chancellery, and said that "after 16 years one does not automatically ... return to the chancellery, that was clear to everyone in the CDU and CSU", describing the close opinion polls about the upcoming election. The remarks came as the Social Democrats had overtaken her conservatives in recent polls.
On September 26, 2021, elections proved inconclusive, although the SPD came in first. This necessitated long negotiations that might take several weeks, if not months. In the meantime, Merkel will remain in a caretaker capacity.
Immigration, refugees and migration
In October 2010, Merkel told a meeting of younger members of her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party at Potsdam that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany had "utterly failed," stating that: "The concept that we are now living side by side and are happy about it" does not work and "we feel attached to the Christian concept of mankind, that is what defines us. Anyone who doesn't accept that is in the wrong place here." She continued to say that immigrants should integrate and adopt Germany's culture and values. This has added to a growing debate within Germany on the levels of immigration, its effect on Germany and the degree to which Muslim immigrants have integrated into German society.
Merkel is in favour of a "mandatory solidarity mechanism" for relocation of asylum-seekers from Italy and Greece to other EU member states as part of the long-term solution to Europe's migrants crisis.
2015 European migrant crisis
In late August 2015, during the height of the European migrant crisis, Merkel's government suspended European provisions, which stipulated that asylum seekers must seek asylum in the first EU country they arrive. Instead Merkel announced that Germany would also process asylum applications from Syrian refugees if they had come to Germany through other EU countries. That year, nearly 1.1 million asylum seekers entered Germany.
Junior coalition partner, Vice Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel said that Germany could take in 500,000 refugees annually for the next several years. German opposition to the government's admission of the new wave of migrants was strong and coupled with a rise in anti-immigration protests. Merkel insisted that Germany had the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there is no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany can take. In September 2015, enthusiastic crowds across the country welcomed arriving refugees and migrants.
Horst Seehofer, leader of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU)—the sister party of Merkel's Christian Democratic Union—and then-Bavarian Minister President, attacked Merkel's policies. Seehofer criticised Merkel's decision to allow in migrants, saying that "[they were] in a state of mind without rules, without system and without order because of a German decision." Seehofer estimated as many as 30 percent of asylum seekers arriving in Germany claiming to be from Syria are in fact from other countries, and suggested reducing EU funding for member countries that rejected mandatory refugee quotas. Meanwhile, Yasmin Fahimi, secretary-general of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), the junior partner of the ruling coalition, praised Merkel's policy allowing migrants in Hungary to enter Germany as "a strong signal of humanity to show that Europe's values are valid also in difficult times".
In November 2015, there were talks inside the governing coalition to stop family unification for migrants for two years, and to establish "Transit Zones" on the border and – for migrants with low chances to get asylum approved – to be housed there until their application is approved. The issues are in conflict between the CSU who favoured those new measures and threatened to leave the coalition without them, and the SPD who opposes them; Merkel agreed to the measures. The November 2015 Paris attacks prompted a reevaluation of German officials' stance on the EU's policy toward migrants. There appeared to be a consensus among officials, with the exception of Merkel, that a higher level of scrutiny was needed in vetting migrants with respect to their mission in Germany. However, while not officially limiting the influx numerically, Merkel tightened asylum policy in Germany.
In October 2016, Merkel travelled to Mali and Niger. The diplomatic visit took place to discuss how their governments could improve conditions which caused people to flee those countries and how illegal migration through and from these countries could be reduced.
The migrant crisis spurred right-wing electoral preferences across Germany with the Alternative for Germany (AfD) gaining 12% of the vote in the 2017 German federal election. These developments prompted debates over the reasons for increased right-wing populism in Germany. Literature argued that the increased right-wing preferences are a result of the European migrant crisis which has brought thousands of people, predominantly from Muslim countries to Germany, and spurred a perception among a share of Germans that refugees constitute an ethnic and cultural threat to Germany.
2018 asylum government crisis
In March 2018, the CSU's Horst Seehofer took over the role of Interior Minister. A policy Seehofer announced is that he has a "master plan for faster asylum procedures, and more consistent deportations." Under Seehofer's plan, Germany would reject migrants who have already been deported or have an entry ban and would instruct police to turn away all migrants who have registered elsewhere in the EU, no matter if these countries agreed to take them back. Merkel feared that unilaterally sending migrants back to neighbouring countries without seeking a multilateral European agreement could endanger the stability of the European Union.
In June 2018, Seehofer backed down from a threat to bypass her in the disagreement over immigration policy until she would come back on 1 July from attempts to find a solution at the European level. On 1 July 2018, Seehofer rejected the agreement Merkel had obtained with EU countries as too little and declared his resignation during a meeting of his party's executive, but they refused to accept it. During the night of 2 July 2018, Seehofer and Merkel announced they had settled their differences and agreed to instead accept a compromise of tighter border control. As a result of the agreement, Seehofer agreed to not resign, and to negotiate bilateral agreements with the specific countries himself. Seehofer was criticised for almost bringing the government down while the monthly number of migrants targeted by that policy was in single figures.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2020)
On 6 April 2020, Merkel stated: "In my view... the European Union is facing the biggest test since its foundation and member states must show greater solidarity so that the bloc can emerge stronger from the economic crisis unleashed by the pandemic". Merkel has won international plaudits for her handling of the pandemic in Germany.
During the German presidency of the European Council Merkel not only changed her mind, but spearheaded negotiating a reconstruction package for the time after the pandemic.
Merkel's foreign policy has focused on strengthening European cooperation and international trade agreements. Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union throughout her tenure as Chancellor.
In 2015, with the absence of Stephen Harper, Merkel became the only leader to have attended every G20 meeting since the first in 2008, having been present at a record fourteen summits as of 2019. She hosted the twelfth meeting at the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit.
One of Merkel's priorities was strengthening transatlantic economic relations. She signed the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007 at the White House.
Merkel enjoyed good relations with US presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama. Obama described her in 2016 as his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as president. Obama's farewell visit to Berlin in November 2016 was widely interpreted as the passing of the torch of global liberal leadership to Merkel as Merkel was seen by many as the new standard bearer of liberal democracy since the election of Donald Trump as US president.
Upon the election of Donald Trump Merkel said that "Germany and America are tied by values of democracy, freedom and respect for the law and human dignity, independent of origin, skin colour, religion, gender, sexual orientation or political views. I offer the next president of the United States, Donald Trump, close cooperation on the basis of these values." The comment was characterized by policy analyst Jennifer Rubin as manifesting the psychological principle of reintegrative shaming.
Following the G7 Summit in Italy and the NATO Summit in Brussels, Merkel stated on 28 May 2017 that the US was no longer the reliable partner Europe and Germany had depended on in the past. At an electoral rally in Munich, she said that "We have to know that we must fight for our future on our own, for our destiny as Europeans", which has been interpreted as an unprecedented shift in the German-American transatlantic relationship.
On 25 September 2007, Merkel met the 14th Dalai Lama for "private and informal talks" in the Chancellery in Berlin amid protest from China. China afterwards cancelled separate talks with German officials, including talks with Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries.
In recognition of the importance of China to the German economy, by 2014 Merkel had led seven trade delegations to China since assuming office in 2005. The same year, in March, China's President Xi Jinping visited Germany.
In response to the death of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo, who died of organ failure while in government custody, Merkel said in a statement that Liu had been a "courageous fighter for civil rights and freedom of expression."
In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Germany, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China's mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.
Merkel expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. She telephoned Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on 9 July to condemn "without reservation rocket fire on Israel".
During the financial crisis of 2007–2008, the German government stepped in to assist the mortgage company Hypo Real Estate with a bailout, which was agreed on 6 October, with German banks to contribute €30 billion and the Bundesbank €20 billion to a credit line.
On 4 October 2008, following the Irish Government's decision to guarantee all deposits in private savings accounts, a move she strongly criticised, Merkel said there were no plans for the German Government to do the same. The following day, Merkel stated that the government would guarantee private savings account deposits, after all. However, two days later, on 6 October 2008, it emerged that the pledge was simply a political move that would not be backed by legislation. Other European governments eventually either raised the limits or promised to guarantee savings in full.
At the World Economic Forum in Davos, 2013, she said that Europe had only 7% of the global population and produced only 25% of the global GDP, but that it accounted for almost 50% of global social expenditure. She went on to say that Europe could only maintain its prosperity by being innovative and measuring itself against the best. Since then, this comparison has become a central element in major speeches. The international financial press has widely commented on her thesis, with The Economist saying:
If Mrs Merkel's vision is pragmatic, so too is her plan for implementing it. It can be boiled down to three statistics, a few charts and some facts on an A4 sheet of paper. The three figures are 7%, 25% and 50%. Mrs Merkel never tires of saying that Europe has 7% of the world's population, 25% of its GDP and 50% of its social spending. If the region is to prosper in competition with emerging countries, it cannot continue to be so generous. ... She produces graphs of unit labour costs ... at EU meetings in much the same way that the late Margaret Thatcher used to pull passages from Friedrich Hayek's Road to Serfdom from her handbag.
The Financial Times commented: "Although Ms Merkel stopped short of suggesting that a ceiling on social spending might be one yardstick for measuring competitiveness, she hinted as much in the light of soaring social spending in the face of an ageing population.[a]
Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union throughout her tenure as Chancellor. Merkel has twice been named the world's second most powerful person following Vladimir Putin by Forbes magazine, the highest ranking ever achieved by a woman. On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union. In December 2015, Merkel was named as Time magazine's Person of the Year, with the magazine's cover declaring her to be the "Chancellor of the Free World". In 2018, Merkel was named the most powerful woman in the world for a record fourteenth time by Forbes. Following the election of Donald Trump to the US presidency in November 2016, Merkel was described by The New York Times as "the Liberal West's Last Defender". Following the election of Donald Trump, some media have described her as the "new leader of the free world". Former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton described Merkel in 2017 as "the most important leader in the free world". She is currently the senior G7 leader. The Atlantic described her in 2019 as "the world's most successful living politician, on the basis of both achievement and longevity". She was found in a 2018 survey to be the most respected world leader internationally. She was named as Harvard University's commencement speaker in 2019; Harvard University President Larry Bacow described her as "one of the most widely admired and broadly influential statespeople of our time".
On 29 October 2018, Merkel announced that she would not seek reelection as leader of CDU at their party conference in December 2018, but intended to remain as chancellor until the 2021 German federal election was held. She stated that she did not plan to seek any political office after this. The resignations followed October setbacks for the CSU in the Bavarian state election and for the CDU in the Hessian state election. In August 2019, Merkel hinted that she might return to academia at the end of her term in 2021.
She decided not to suggest any person as her successor as leader of the CDU. However, political observers had long considered Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer as Merkel's protégé groomed for succession. This view was confirmed when Kramp-Karrenbauer – widely seen as the chancellor's favourite for the post – was voted to succeed Merkel as leader of the CDU in December 2018. Kramp-Karrenbauer's elevation to Defence Minister after Ursula von der Leyen's departure to become president of the European Commission also boosted her standing as Merkel's most likely candidate for succession. In 2019, media outlets speculated that Kramp-Karrenbauer might take over Merkel's position as Chancellor sooner than planned if the current governing coalition proved unsustainable. The possibility was neither confirmed nor denied by the party. In February 2020, Kramp-Karrenbauer announced that she would resign as party leader of the CDU in the summer, after party members in Thuringia defied her by voting with Alternative for Germany to support an FDP candidate for minister-president. Kramp-Karrenbauer was succeeded by Armin Laschet at the 2021 CDU leadership election.
In 1977, at the age of 23, Merkel, then Angela Kasner, married physics student Ulrich Merkel (born 1953) and took his surname. The marriage ended in divorce in 1982. Her second and current husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer, who has largely remained out of the media spotlight. They first met in 1981, became a couple later and married privately on 30 December 1998. She has no children, but Sauer has two adult sons from a previous marriage.
Merkel is a fervent football fan and has been known to listen to games while in the Bundestag and to attend games of the national team in her official capacity, including Germany's 1–0 victory against Argentina in the 2014 World Cup Final. Merkel stated that her favorite movie is The Legend of Paul and Paula, an East German movie released in 1973.
Merkel has a fear of dogs after being attacked by one in 1995. Vladimir Putin brought in his Labrador Retriever during a press conference in 2007. Putin claims he did not mean to scare her, though Merkel later observed, "I understand why he has to do this – to prove he's a man. ... He's afraid of his own weakness."
Since 2017 Merkel has been seen and filmed to shake visibly on several public occasions, recovering shortly afterwards. After one such occasion she attributed the shaking to dehydration, saying that she felt better after a drink of water. After three occasions where this happened in June 2019, she began to sit down during the performances of the national anthems during the State visits of Mette Frederiksen and Maia Sandu the following month.
In September 2021, after years of evading the question, Merkel said she considered herself a feminist. The statement came in a conference along with Nigerian writer and feminist icon Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.
Angela Merkel is a Lutheran member of the Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia (German: Evangelische Kirche Berlin-Brandenburg-schlesische Oberlausitz – EKBO), a United Protestant (i.e. both Reformed and Lutheran) church body under the umbrella of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). The EKBO is a church of the Union of Evangelical Churches. Before the 2004 merger of the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg and the Evangelical Church in Silesian Upper Lusatia (both also being a part of the EKD), she belonged to the former. In 2012, Merkel said, regarding her faith: "I am a member of the evangelical church. I believe in God and religion is also my constant companion, and has been for the whole of my life. We as Christians should above all not be afraid of standing up for our beliefs." She also publicly declared that Germany suffers not from "too much Islam" but "too little Christianity".
Honours and awards
- Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash of the Order of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria
- 1st Class of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (23 February 2021)
- Recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru
- Grand Cross of the Order of Infante Henry
- Saudi Arabia:
- Grand Officer of the Order of Abdulaziz al Saud
- United States:
- Recipient of the Decoration for Exceptional Merits
- In 2007, Merkel was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- In June 2008, she was awarded an honorary doctorate from Leipzig University.
- University of Technology in Wrocław (Poland) in September 2008 and Babeș-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Romania on 12 October 2010 for her historical contribution to the European unification and for her global role in renewing international cooperation.
- On 23 May 2013, she was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Radboud University Nijmegen.
- In November 2013, she was awarded the Honorary Doctorate (Honoris Causa) title by the University of Szeged.
- In November 2014, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by Comenius University in Bratislava.
- In September 2015, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Bern.
- In January 2017, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa jointly by Ghent University and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
- In May 2017, Merkel was awarded the title of Doctrix Honoris Causa by the University of Helsinki.
- In May 2019, Merkel was awarded an honorary doctorate from Harvard University.
- In July 2021, Merkel was awarded the title Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa from Johns Hopkins University.
- In 2006, Merkel was awarded the Vision for Europe Award for her contribution toward greater European integration.
- She received the Karlspreis (Charlemagne Prize) in 2008 for distinguished services to European unity.
- In March 2008, she received the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit.
- Merkel topped Forbes magazine's list of "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women" in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020.
- In 2010, New Statesman named Merkel as one of "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures".
- On 16 June 2010, the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Washington D.C. awarded Merkel its Global Leadership Award (AICGS) in recognition of her outstanding dedication to strengthening German-American relations.
- On 21 September 2010, the Leo Baeck Institute, a research institution in New York City devoted to the history of German-speaking Jewry, awarded Merkel the Leo Baeck Medal. The medal was presented by former US Secretary of the Treasury and current Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin, W. Michael Blumenthal, who cited Merkel's support of Jewish cultural life and the integration of minorities in Germany.
- On 31 May 2011, she received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the year 2009 from the Indian government. She received the award for International understanding.
- Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People ranked Merkel as the world's second most powerful person in 2012, the highest ranking achieved by a woman since the list began in 2009; she was ranked fifth in 2013 and 2014
- On 28 November 2012, she received the Heinz Galinski Award in Berlin, Germany.
- In 2013, she received the Indira Gandhi Peace Prize.
- In December 2015, she was named Time magazine's Person of the Year.
- In May 2016, Merkel received the International Four Freedoms Award from the Roosevelt Foundation in Middelburg, the Netherlands.
- In 2017, Merkel received the Elie Wiesel Award from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- In 2020, Merkel received the Henry A. Kissinger Prize from the American Academy in Berlin.
As a woman who is a politician from a centre-right party and also a scientist, Merkel has been compared by many in the English-language press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (Thatcher also had a science degree from Oxford University in chemistry). Some have referred to her as "Iron Lady", "Iron Girl", and even "The Iron Frau", all alluding to Thatcher, whose nickname was "The Iron Lady". Political commentators have debated the precise extent to which their agendas are similar. Later in her tenure, Merkel acquired the nickname "Mutti" (a German familiar form of "mother"). She has also been called the "Iron Chancellor", in reference to Otto von Bismarck.
In addition to being the first female German chancellor, the first to have grown up in the former East Germany (though she was born in the West), and the youngest German chancellor since the Second World War, Merkel is also the first born after World War II, and the first chancellor of the Federal Republic with a background in natural sciences. While she studied physics, her predecessors studied law, business or history, among other professions.
Merkel has been criticised for being personally present and involved at the M100 Media Award handover to Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard, who had triggered the Muhammad cartoons controversy. This happened at a time of fierce emotional debate in Germany over a book by the former Deutsche Bundesbank executive and finance senator of Berlin Thilo Sarrazin, which was critical of the Muslim immigration. At the same time she condemned a planned burning of Qurans by a fundamental pastor in Florida. The Central Council of Muslims in Germany and the Left Party (Die Linke) as well as the German Green Party[c] criticised the action by the centre-right chancellor. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper wrote: "This will probably be the most explosive moment of her chancellorship so far." Others have praised Merkel and called it a brave and bold move for the cause of freedom of speech.
Merkel's position towards the negative statements by Thilo Sarrazin with regard to the integration problems with Arab and Turkish people in Germany has been critical throughout. According to her personal statements, Sarrazin's approach is "totally unacceptable" and counterproductive to the ongoing problems of integration.
The term alternativlos (German for "without an alternative"), which was frequently used by Angela Merkel to describe her measures addressing the European sovereign-debt crisis, was named the Un-word of the Year 2010 by a jury of linguistic scholars. The wording was criticised as undemocratic, as any discussion on Merkel's politics would thus be deemed unnecessary or undesirable. The expression is credited for the name of the political party Alternative for Germany, which was founded in 2013.
In July 2013, Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the National Security Agency, and described the United States as "our truest ally throughout the decades". During a visit of U.S. President Barack Obama in Berlin, Merkel said on 19 June 2013 in the context of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures: "The Internet is uncharted territory for us all" (German: Das Internet ist für uns alle Neuland). This statement led to various internet memes and online mockery of Merkel.
Merkel compared the NSA to the Stasi when it became known that her mobile phone was tapped by that agency. In response, Susan Rice pledged that the US would desist from spying on her personally, but said there would not be a no-espionage agreement between the two countries.
In July 2014 Merkel said trust between Germany and the United States could only be restored by talks between the two, and she would seek to have talks. She reiterated that the US remained Germany's most important ally.
Her statement "Islam is part of Germany" during a state visit of the Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoğlu in January 2015 induced criticism within her party. The parliamentary group leader Volker Kauder said that Islam is not part of Germany and that Muslims should deliberate on the question why so many violent people refer to the Quran.
In October 2015, Horst Seehofer, Bavarian State Premier and CSU leader, criticised Merkel's policy of allowing in hundreds of thousands of migrants from the Middle East: "We're now in a state of mind without rules, without system and without order because of a German decision." Seehofer attacked Merkel policies in sharp language, threatened to sue the government in the high court, and hinted that the CSU might topple Merkel. Many MPs of Merkel's CDU party also voiced dissatisfaction with Merkel. Chancellor Merkel insisted that Germany has the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there is no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany can take.
At the conclusion of the May 2017 Group of Seven's leaders in Sicily, Merkel criticised American efforts to renege on earlier commitments on climate change. According to Merkel, the discussions were difficult and marred by dissent. "Here we have the situation where six members, or even seven if you want to add the EU, stand against one."
Merkel has faced criticism for failing to take a tough line on the People's Republic of China. The Asia Times reported that "Unlike certain of her European counterparts, her China diplomacy has focused on non-interference in Beijing’s internal affairs. As such, Merkel was reportedly furious when her Foreign Minister Heiko Maas received Hong Kong dissident Joshua Wong in Berlin in September , a move that Beijing publicly protested."
In the arts and media
Merkel features as a main character in two of the three plays that make up the Europeans Trilogy (Bruges, Antwerp, Tervuren) by Paris-based UK playwright Nick Awde: Bruges (Edinburgh Festival, 2014) and Tervuren (2016). A character named Merkel, accompanied by a sidekick called Schäuble, also appears as the sinister female henchman in Michael Paraskos's novel In Search of Sixpence.
On the British sketch-comedy Tracey Ullman's Show, comedian Tracey Ullman has parodied Merkel to international acclaim with German media dubbing her impersonation as the best spoof of Merkel in the world.
In 2016, a documentary film Angela Merkel – The Unexpected, a story about her unexpected rise to power from an East German physicist to the most powerful woman in the world, was produced by Broadview TV and MDR in collaboration with Arte and Das Erste.
- The economist Arno Tausch from Corvinus University in Budapest, in a paper published by the Social Science Research Network in New York has contended that a re-analysis of the Merkel hypothesis about the distribution of global social expenditure based on 169 countries for which we have recent ILO Social Protection data and World Bank GNI data in real purchasing power reveals that the 27 EU countries with complete data spend only 33% of global world social protection expenditures, while the 13 non-EU-OECD members, among them the major other Western democracies, spend 40% of global social protection expenditures, the BRICS 18% and the Rest of the World 9% of global social protection expenditures. Most probably, the author claims, Merkel's 50% ratio is the product of a mere, simple projection of data for the OECD-member countries onto the world level <http://www.oecd.org/social/expenditure.htm>. Tausch also claims that the data reveal the successful social Keynesianism of the Anglo-Saxon overseas democracies, which are in stark contrast to the savings agenda in the framework of the European "fiscal pact", see Tausch, Arno (4 September 2015). "Wo Frau Kanzlerin Angela Merkel Irrt: Der Sozialschutz in der Welt, der Anteil Europas und die Beurteilung Seiner Effizienz (Where Chancellor Angela Merkel Got it Wrong: Social Protection in the World, Europe's Share in it and the Assessment of its Efficiency)". doi:10.2139/ssrn.2656113. SSRN 2656113. Cite journal requires
- The medal is presented to people who have made an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, or cultural or other significant public or private endeavors
- Grüne/Bündnis 90 Spokesman Renate Künast: "I wouldn't have done it", said Green Party floor leader Renate Künast. It was true that the right to freedom of expression also applies to cartoons, she said. "But if a chancellor also makes a speech on top of that, it serves to heat up the debate."
- "Angela Merkel: Her bio in brief". The Christian Science Monitor. 20 September 2013.
- Government continues as acting government, bundeskanzlerin.de, 24 October 2017
- She is known in German as Bundeskanzlerin. Bundeskanzlerin is a grammatically regular formation of a noun denoting a female chancellor, adding "-in" to the end of Bundeskanzler, though the word was not used officially before Merkel.
- Vick, Karl (2015). "Time Person of the Year 2015: Angela Merkel". Time. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- AFP. "Merkel: From austerity queen to 'leader of free world'". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
- "The World's Most Powerful Women 2018". Forbes. Archived from the original on 18 September 2019. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
- Miller, Saskia (20 April 2020). "The Secret to Germany's COVID-19 Success: Angela Merkel Is a Scientist". The Atlantic.
- "Germany's Merkel begins new term". BBC. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "German Chancellor Angela Merkel makes a hat-trick win in 2013 Elections". Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Oltermann, Philip; Connolly, Kate (14 March 2018). "Angela Merkel faces multiple challenges in her fourth term". The Guardian.
- "Angela Merkel faces outright rebellion within her own party over refugee crisis". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Angela Merkel to step down in 2021". BBC News. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel. DTV (in German). p. 10. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Merkels Vater gestorben – Termine abgesagt" (in German). newsecho. 3 September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Qvortrup, Matthew (2016). "In the Shadow of the Berlin Wall". Angela Merkel: Europe's Most Influential Leader. The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-4683-1408-3.
- "Picturing the Family: Media, Narrative, Memory | Research".
- Kornelius, Stefan (March 2013). Angela Merkel: Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt (in German). Hoffmann und Campe. p. 7. ISBN 978-3-455-50291-6.
- Kornelius, Stefan (10 September 2013). "Six things you didn't know about Angela Merkel". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "The German chancellor's Polish roots". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013.
- "Merkel hat polnische Wurzeln" [Merkel has Polish roots]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013.
- Krauel, Torsten (13 March 2013). "Ahnenforschung: Kanzlerin Angela Merkel ist zu einem Viertel Polin". Die Welt (in German).
- Boyes, Roger (25 July 2005). "Angela Merkel: Forged in the Old Communist East, Germany's Chancellor-in-Waiting Is Not like the Others". New Statesman.
- Werner, Reutter (1 December 2005). "Who's Afraid of Angela Merkel?: The Life, Political Career, and Future of the New German Chancellor". International Journal. 61.
- Vasagar, Jeevan (1 September 2013). "Angela Merkel, the girl who never wanted to stand out, to win big again". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- Patterson, Tony (17 November 2015). "Angela Merkel's journey from Communist East Germany to Chancellor". The Independent. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- "Angela Merkel – Biography, Political Career & Facts". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Hugh C. Dyer, Leon Mangasarian, "German Democratic Republic", in The Study of International Relations: The State of the Art, p. 328, Springer, 1989, ISBN 978-1-349-20275-1
- Spohr, Kristina (8 July 2017). "The learning machine: Angela Merkel". New Statesman.
- "5 Things to Know About Germany's Angela Merkel". Associated Press. 2017.
- "Life in Communist East Germany was 'almost comfortable' at times, Merkel says". Reuters. 8 November 2019.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). DTV. p. 50. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- Reitler, Torsten (27 March 2009). "Drogenwahn auf der Dauerbaustelle". Der Spiegel (in German). Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Crawford, Alan; Czuczka, Tony (20 September 2013). "Angela Merkel's Years in East Germany Shaped Her Crisis Politics". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- "I Was a Squatter, Reveals German Chancellor Merkel". Deutsche Welle. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- "How Close Was Merkel to the Communist System?". Der Spiegel. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- Langguth, Gerd (2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: dtv. pp. 106–107. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
Angela Merkel war allerdings kein 'einfaches Mitglied', sondern gehörte zum FDJ-Sekretariat des Instituts. Osten [Hans-Jörg Osten] kann sich nicht an die genaue Funktion seiner damaligen Kollegin erinnern. ... Er kann sich nicht definitiv daran erinnern, aber auch nicht ausschließen, dass Angela Merkel die Funktion eines Sekretärs für Agitation und Propaganda wahrnahm. [Angela Merkel was not just an 'ordinary member', but belonged to the FDJ secretariat of the institute. Osten cannot remember the exact function of his erstwhile colleague. ... He cannot remember definitely whether she performed the function of a secretary for agitation and propaganda, but he cannot exclude that possibility.]
- Merkel, Angela (1986). Untersuchung des Mechanismus von Zerfallsreaktionen mit einfachem Bindungsbruch und Berechnung ihrer Geschwindigkeitskonstanten auf der Grundlage quantenchemischer und statistischer Methoden (Investigation of the mechanism of decay reactions with single bond breaking and calculation of their rate constants on the basis of quantum chemical and statistical methods) (in German). Berlin: Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (dissertation). cited in Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. p. 109. ISBN 3-423-24485-2. and listed in the Catalogue of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek under subject code 30 (Chemistry).
- "Scopus – Author search results". scopus.com. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- Suckert, Wolfgang (17 July 2014). "Wie Angela Merkel beinahe Thüringerin wurde". Thüringer Allgemeine (in German). Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- Huggler, Justin (9 October 2015). "10 moments that define German chancellor Angela Merkel". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005) . Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. pp. 112–137. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Merkel wirbt für gute Finanzausstattung der Kommunen". Focus Online (in German). dpa. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Packer, George (1 December 2014). "The Astonishing Rise of Angela Merkel". The New Yorker. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- Weiland, Severin (30 May 2005). "Kohls unterschätztes Mädchen" [Kohl's Underestimated Girl]. Der Spiegel (in German). Archived from the original on 18 July 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Qvortrup, Matthew (2016). Angela Merkel: Europe's Most Influential Leader. The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-4683-1408-3.
- Barry Turner (ed.) The Statesman's Yearbook 2015: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World, Springer 2014 p. 516
- "Schroeder wins second term". CNN. 23 September 2002. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- "Opposition meltdown: The great disintegration act". Der Spiegel. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Merkel fordert längere Arbeitszeit". Der Spiegel (in German). 18 May 2003. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "Merkel: Nuclear phase-out is wrong". World Nuclear News. 10 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- Staudenmaier, Rebecca (15 June 2017). "Germany's nuclear phase-out explained". DW. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
- Casier, Marlies; Jongerden, Joost, eds. (2010). Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey. p. 110. doi:10.4324/9780203847060. ISBN 978-1-136-93867-2.
- Saunders, Doug (14 September 2005). "Popular flat-tax movement hits brick wall in Germany". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Volkery, Carsten (3 August 2005). "CDU-Panne: Brutto, netto, Merkel". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Crawford, Alan; Czuczka, Tony (12 June 2013). Angela Merkel: A Chancellorship Forged in Crisis. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-64109-5.
- Harding, Luke (11 July 2005). "Merkel unveils tax-raising manifesto". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "Germany votes in close election". BBC. 18 September 2005. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- "German election ends in stalemate". BBC. 19 September 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
- "Merkel named as German chancellor". BBC News. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- Penfold, Chuck (30 October 2009). "Merkel's new cabinet sworn in". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "German parties back new coalition". BBC News. 14 November 2005. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009.
- "Merkel becomes German chancellor". BBC News. 22 November 2005. Archived from the original on 9 December 2005.
- "German coalition poised for power". BBC News. 11 November 2005. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005.
- "Merkel defends German reform plan". BBC News. 12 November 2005. Archived from the original on 15 March 2006.
- "Arbeitsmarkt: Arbeitslosigkeit 2011 meist unter drei Millionen" [Labour market: Unemployment in 2011 mostly below three million]. Focus online (in German). dpa. 27 October 2010.
- Connolly, Kate; Oltermann, Philip (23 September 2013). "German election: Angela Merkel secures historic third win". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- Moulson, Geir (27 November 2013). "Angela Merkel reaches deal with SPD to form German-Grand-Coalition". The Independent. AP. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- Müller, Volker. "Deutscher Bundestag – Bundeskanzlerin und Bundeskabinett vereidigt". Deutscher Bundestag (in German). Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- Pidd, Helen (21 February 2011). "Angela Merkel's party crushed in Hamburg poll". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "German opposition hits 11-year high in polls". France 24. 5 August 2011. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Union dank Merkel im Umfrage-Aufwind". Stern (in German). 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Buergin, Rainer (2 October 2015). "Merkel Approval Rating Drops to Four-Year Low on Refugee Crisis". Bloomberg. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- Ehni, Ellen (4 August 2016). "ARD-Deutschlandtrend: Mehrheit gegen EU-Beitritt der Türkei". tagesschau.de (in German). Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- Turner, Zeke; Fairless, Tom (28 August 2016). "Half of Germans Oppose Fourth Term for Angela Merkel, Survey Finds". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- Ehni, Ellen (6 October 2016). "ARD-DeutschlandTrend: Merkel überwindet ihr Tief" [ARD-DeutschlandTrend: Merkel overcomes her low point.] (in German). ARD-tagesschau. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "Forsa-Umfrage: Mehrheit für erneute Kanzlerkandidatur Merkels" [Forsa Poll: Majority for renewed chancellor candidature of Merkel]. Westfälische Nachrichten (in German). dpa. Archived from the original on 18 May 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- Gaugele, Jochen; Kammholz, Karsten (27 December 2016). "Flüchtlingskrise wird 2017 die größte Herausforderung" [Refugee crisis to be biggest challenge in 2017]. Berliner Morgenpost (in German). Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- "Koalition: Merkel lädt ab Mittwoch kommender Woche zu Jamaika-Gesprächen". Der Spiegel. dpa. 9 October 2017. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
- Paun, Carmen (7 October 2017). "Angela Merkel Ready to Move Forward with Jamaica Coalition". Politico. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
- Connolly, Kate (24 November 2017). "Germany's SPD is ready for talks to end coalition deadlock". The Guardian. Berlin. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "Bundestag wählt Angela Merkel zum vierten Mal zur Bundeskanzlerin". Neue Zürcher Zeitung. dpa. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Delhaes, Daniel (28 December 2017). "Waning support puts Merkel's future in doubt". Handelsblatt Global. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- Müller, Volker (14 March 2018). "Deutscher Bundestag – Angela Merkel mit 364 Stimmen zur Bundeskanzlerin gewählt". Deutscher Bundestag (in German). Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "Germany's never-ending coalition talks break record". Deutsche Welle. 20 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- Oltermann, Philip (4 March 2018). "Merkel secures fourth term in power after SPD backs coalition deal". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "Zwei Drittel für volle Amtszeit". n-tv. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- "Merkel says her conservatives face hard battle after 16 years in power". Reuters. 9 September 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
- ABC News, 26 September 2021
- "Merkel says German multicultural society has failed". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010.
- Kauffmann, Audrey (17 October 2007). "Merkel Says German Multi-Cultural Society Has Failed". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Zentralrat der Juden kritisiert Seehofer: Debatte ist scheinheilig und hysterisch". Südwestrundfunk (in German). Retrieved 21 October 2010.
Wir fühlen uns dem christlichen Menschenbild verbunden, das ist das, was uns ausmacht. Wer das nicht akzeptiert, der ist bei uns fehl am Platz[dead link]
- "Germany's charged immigration debate". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010.
- "Merkel Losing Her Patience with Lack of EU Solidarity". Der Spiegel. 18 September 2020.
- Escritt, Thomas; Baczynska, Gabriela (22 September 2020). "Germany pushes for EU solidarity on migration – again". Reuters.
- Holehouse, Matthew; Huggler, Justin; Vogt, Andrea (24 August 2015). "Germany drops EU rules to allow in Syrian refugees". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Migrant crisis: Germany 'can take 500,000 asylum seekers a year'". BBC News. 8 September 2015.
- Hill, Jenny (30 July 2013). "Immigration fuels rising tension in Germany". BBC. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- "Germany: 'No Limit' To Refugees We'll Take In". Sky News. 5 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Germans welcome thousands of newly arrived refugees". Deutsche Welle. 6 September 2015.
- "Merkel splits conservative bloc with green light to refugees". Reuters. 6 September 2015. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Delcker, Janosch (23 September 2015). "Viktor Orbán, Bavaria's hardline hero". Politico.
- "Refugee crisis: Many migrants falsely claim to be Syrians, Germany says as EU tries to ease tensions". The Daily Telegraph. 25 September 2015.
- "Berlin calls for sanctions on EU states that reject refugee quotas". Deutsche Welle. 15 September 2015.
- "Germany: Coalition split on transit zones". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- Emric, Eldar; Nellas, Demetri (14 November 2015). "Paris Attacks Provoke Fresh Migrant Fears in Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Alison Smale (28 November 2015). "Merkel, While Refusing to Halt Migrant Influx, Works to Limit It". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Hunderte Millionen gegen die Flucht". Der Spiegel. 10 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- Lucassen, Geertje; Lubbers, Marcel (2012). "Who Fears What? Explaining Far-Right-Wing Preference in Europe by Distinguishing Perceived Cultural and Economic Threats". Comparative Political Studies. 45 (5). doi:10.1177/0010414011427851. S2CID 145071392.
- "Germany's future interior minister Horst Seehofer vows to increase deportations". Deusche Welle. 11 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "Germany: Interior minister gives Merkel ultimatum on migrants". www.aljazeera.com.
- "Germany's interior minister Horst Seehofer wants quick action on migrants". 18 June 2018. Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
- "Merkel coalition crisis: Seehofer offers to quit over migration". www.aljazeera.com.
- "Germany migrants: Key Merkel ally Seehofer threatens to quit". BBC News. 2 July 2018.
- Oltermann, Philip; Chrisafis, Angelique; Connolly, Kate (2 July 2018). "Merkel and Seehofer make last-ditch bid for migration compromise". The Guardian.
- Thomas, Andrea; Marson, James (2 July 2018). "Germany's Merkel Secures Deal on Migrants, Averts Government Collapse". The Wall Street Journal.
- Schmidt, Nadine; Vonberg, Judith (2 July 2018). "Germany's Merkel makes deal with interior minister on migration dispute". CNN International Edition. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- "Germany migrants: Merkel averts coalition government split". BBC News. 3 July 2018.
- Wacket, Andreas Rinke, Markus (6 April 2020). "Coronavirus pandemic is historical test for EU, Merkel says". Reuters.
- Oltermann, Philip (16 April 2020). "Angela Merkel draws on science background in Covid-19 explainer: German chancellor excels in describing epidemiological basis of lockdown exit strategy". The Guardian.
- Merkels Lehre aus dem Griechenland-Drama, (Merkles learnings from the Greek drama) orf.at, 12 December 2012.
- "G20-Gipfel in Hamburg: Merkel nennt erstmals Themen". Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- "Enterprise policies" (PDF). European Council. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Roberts, Rachel (23 January 2017). "Germany has 'given up' on Donald Trump acting like a President". The Independent.
- "Obama: Merkel was my closest ally". The Local. 15 November 2016.
- Islam, Faisal (18 November 2016). "Baton of global leadership passes from US to Germany". Sky News.
- "Obama passes torch to Merkel on farewell tour". France 24. 17 November 2016.
- Knight, Ben (9 November 2016). "Merkel congratulates Trump as politicians express shock". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- Rubin, Jennifer (15 November 2016). "The psychological tricks Angela Merkel used to congratulate Donald Trump say a lot about their countries' future relations". The Independent.
- Smale, Alison; Erlanger, Steven (28 May 2017). "Merkel, After Discordant G-7 Meeting, Is Looking Past Trump". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- Henley, Jon (28 May 2017). "Angela Merkel: EU cannot completely rely on US and Britain any more". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- Donahue, Patrick (28 May 2017). "Merkel Signals New Era for Europe as Trump Smashes Consensus". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "Merkel meets with the Dalai Lama". Euronews. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Angela Merkel sets off for China to forge new economic ties". Herald Globe. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- "Trump praises Xi soon after death of Chinese dissident". CNBC. 13 July 2017.
- "More than 20 ambassadors condemn China's treatment of Uighurs in Xinjiang". The Guardian. 11 July 2019.
- "Dependence on Russian gas worries some – but not all – European countries". The Christian Science Monitor. 6 March 2008. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Germany's Angela Merkel slams planned U.S. sanctions on Russia". Deutsche Welle. 16 June 2017.
- "Klitschko, Merkel discuss prospects for signing EU-Ukraine association agreement". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 5 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
- Shamah, David (6 July 2014). "Hamas rockets reach the north, Abbas charges Israel with genocide". The Times of Israel.
- "Merkel calls Sudeten German expulsion "immoral", drawing Czech ire". Czech Radio. 21 June 2018.
- Parkin, Brian; Suess, Oliver (6 October 2008). "Hypo Real Gets EU50 Billion Government-Led Bailout". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Dougherty, Carter. "Germany guarantees all private bank accounts". Forbes. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Whitlock, Craig (6 October 2008). "Germany to guarantee Private Bank Accounts". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- "Bank uncertainty hits UK shares". BBC News. 6 October 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- "Bundesregierung | Rede von Bundeskanzlerin Merkel beim Jahrestreffen 2013 des World Economic Forum" (in German). Bundesregierung.de. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Among others, in her speech on the occasion of her honorary doctoral degree at the University of Szeged in Hungary, see http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Rede/2015/02/2015-02-02-merkel-budapest.html.
- "The Merkel plan". The Economist. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Peel, Quentin (16 December 2012). "Merkel warns on cost of welfare". Financial Times. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Balasubramanyam, Ranjitha (16 September 2013). "All Eyes on Berlin". Foreign Policy Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Francis, David (22 September 2013). ""Mama" Merkel May Win Germany, But Not the Euro Zone". The Fiscal Times. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Wagele, Elizabeth (16 July 2012). "What Personality Type is Angela Merkel?". Psychology Today. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Angela Merkel 'world's most powerful woman'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- "Profile Angela Merkel". Forbes. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Gibbs, Nancy (9 December 2015). "Why Angela Merkel is TIME's Person of the Year". Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Angela Merkel". Forbes. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- Smale, Alison; Erlanger, Steven (12 November 2016). "As Obama Exits World Stage, Angela Merkel May Be the Liberal West's Last Defender". The New York Times.
- Haltiwanger, John (29 October 2018). "German Chancellor Angela Merkel, the newly christened 'leader of the free world' is preparing to step back from politics – and experts say 'the coming storm is ... quite powerful'". Business Insider. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
- Clarke, Hilary (30 October 2018). "For years, Angela Merkel saw off all challengers. Now, she's preparing to step aside". CNN. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
- Moulson, Geir; Rising, David (29 October 2018). "Merkel won't seek a 5th term as German chancellor". AP NEWS. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
- Smale, Alison; Erlanger, Steven (12 November 2016). "As Obama Exits World Stage, Angela Merkel May Be the Liberal West's Last Defender". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- Ali, Yashar (24 September 2017). "Clinton Says Angela Merkel Is The Most Important Leader in the Free World". HuffPost.
- Marton, Kati (19 May 2019). "The Merkel Model". The Atlantic.
- "World prefers Angela Merkel to Donald Trump: Pew study". Deutsche Welle. 2 October 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- "Angela Merkel named Harvard Commencement speaker". news.harvard.edu. 7 December 2018.
- Le Blond, Josie (29 October 2018). "German chancellor Angela Merkel will not seek re-election in 2021". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Merkel hints at return to academia after politics". Reuters. 31 August 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Moulson, Geir; Rising, David (29 October 2018). "Angela Merkel won't seek 5th term as German chancellor". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 29 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer elected to succeed Merkel as CDU leader". Politico. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- Karnitschnig, Matthew (18 July 2019). "Angela Merkel's succession maneuver". Politico. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- Torsten Krauel, Chefkommentator (12 March 2019). "Kanzlerin Kramp-Karrenbauer? Eine Gespensterdebatte". Die Welt. Axel Springer SE (WELT und N24Doku), Berlin. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Ich will, dass Angela Merkel Kanzlerin bleibt". Der Spiegel (online). 11 March 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Angela Merkel's coalition is in trouble. That means Europe is, too". The Economist. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- "Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer: Favourite to replace Merkel stands down". BBC News. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Pragmatic governor Laschet elected to lead Merkel's party". Associated Press. 16 January 2021.
- Online, FOCUS. "Eines Tages zog sie aus". FOCUS Online.
- "Biographie: Angela Merkel, geb. 1954". DHM. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Uhlmann, Stefan (14 August 2009). "Joachim Sauer, das Phantom an Merkels Seite". Die Zeit (in German). Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- "Das diskrete Gluck". Bild (in German). 28 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- Klatell, James M (9 August 2006). "Germany's First Fella, Angela Merkel Is Germany's Chancellor; But Her Husband Stays Out of the Spotlight". CBS News. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Angela Merkel im Fußballfieber". Focus (in German). 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Kanzlerin Merkel kommt erst wieder zum Finale". Handelsblatt (in German). 23 June 2012. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- Camargo, Marcelo (25 January 2014). "Germany chancellor and president to watch final at Maracanã". Agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- Welle (dw.com), Deutsche. "Merkel reveals politically explosive favorite film | DW | 15 May 2013". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- Hume, Tim. "Putin: I didn't mean to scare Angela Merkel with dog". CNN. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- Oltermann, Philip (10 July 2019). "Angela Merkel says she is in good health after third shaking bout". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- "Angela Merkel shaking: I'm well, she says, despite third incident". BBC News. 10 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- Berlin, Oliver Moody (11 July 2019). "Concerns grow as Merkel suffers third bout of shaking". The Times. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- Philip Oltermann (27 June 2019). "Angela Merkel seen shaking for second time in just over a week". The Guardian.
- "Germany's Angela Merkel declares 'yes, I am a feminist'". Deutsche Welle. 9 September 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
- "Bundeskanzlerin Merkel ohne fertige Antworten in Templin". Archived from the original on 23 November 2016.
- Spencer, Nick (6 January 2016). "Angela Merkel: How Germany's Iron Chancellor is shaped by her Christianity | Christian News on Christian Today". Christiantoday.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
"Video Podcast of the German Chancellor #37/2012" (PDF) (in German). 3 November 2012.
Ich bin Mitglied der evangelischen Kirche. Ich glaube an Gott, und die Religion ist auch mein ständiger Begleiter – eigentlich in meinem ganzen Leben – gewesen.
- "Bericht der Vorsitzenden der CDU Deutschlands Bundeskanzlerin Dr. Angela Merkel MdB" [Report of the Chairwoman of the German CDU Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel] (PDF) (in German). 9 September 2011.
Es ist doch nicht so, dass wir ein Zuviel an Islam haben, sondern wir haben ein Zuwenig an Christentum.
- "Bundesverdienstkreuz für Merkel". Tagesschau (in German). Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
- https://arouet8.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/5-faymann-ueberreichte-merkel-grosses-goldenes-ehrenzeichen-20150827.jpg[bare URL]
- https://www.knack.be/nieuws/belgie/koning-filip-reikt-grootlint-in-de-leopoldsorde-uit-aan-angela-merkel/article-belga-1788537.html[bare URL]
- http://media.gettyimages.com/photos/german-chancellor-angela-merkel-stands-after-being-awarded-the-the-picture-id105199813[bare URL]
- http://media.gettyimages.com/photos/bulgarian-president-georgi-parvanov-awards-german-chancellor-angela-picture-id105186922[bare URL]
- "List of the Recipients of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award". Indian Council for Cultural Relations. 2014. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- Cashman, Greer Fay (25 February 2014). "President Peres awards Germany's Merkel Medal of Distinction". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014.
- "Merkel Dott.ssa Angela". Quirinale (in Italian). Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- vestnesis.lv. "Par Triju Zvaigžņu ordeņa piešķiršanu – Latvijas Vēstnesis". vestnesis.lv.
- "Lithuanian president bestows state award upon German chancellor". Delfi (web portal).
- "Dalia Grybauskaite Photo Gallery". gettyimages.co.uk.
- "Tildelinger av ordener og medaljer". Kongehuset (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- "Russell among 15 Presidential Medal of Freedom honorees". National Basketball Association. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Executive Order 11085". Wikisource. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
The Medal may be awarded by the President as provided in this order to any person who has made an especially meritorious contribution to (1), the security or national interests of the United States, or (2) world peace, or (3) cultural or other significant public or private endeavors.
- a.s, Petit Press (7 February 2019). "Merkel awarded for developing relations between Slovakia and Germany". spectator.sme.sk. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА УКРАЇНИ №380/2021". Офіційне інтернет-представництво Президента України (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 24 August 2021.
- "Honorary Doctorates". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "Pressemitteilung 2008/106 der Universität Leipzig" (in German). Universität Leipzig. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Doktorat honoris causa dla Merkel". RP (in Polish). 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Universitatea Babes-Bolyai". Web.ubbcluj.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Angela Merkel a primit titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al Universităţii Babeş-Bolyai". Realitatea TV. 12 October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Cancelarul Germaniei, Angela Merkel, a primit titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al UBB Cluj". România Liberă (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Belgien: Ehrendoktor für Angela Merkel". Euronews (in German). 12 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Ervasti, Anu-Elina (7 March 2017). "Angela Merkel vihitään Helsingin yliopiston kunniatohtoriksi". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "Harvard awards nine honorary degrees". 30 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "German Chancellor Angela Merkel to receive Johns Hopkins honorary degree". The Hub. 14 July 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
- Latham, Mark (5 January 2008). "Angela Merkel awarded the Charlemagne Prize". Aachen. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Riccardi, Andrea. "Der Karlspreisträger 2009" (in German). Karlspreis.de. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008.
- Reeves, John P. "B'nai B'rith Europe grants Award of Merit to Dr. Angela Merkel". B'nai B'rith Europe. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
... Dr Angela Merkel Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany was the recipient of a Gold Medal for outstanding services, the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit, being the highest accolade of BBEurope
- Serafin, Tatiana (31 August 2006). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
Serafin, Tatiana (30 August 2007). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
Serafin, Tatiana (27 August 2008). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
"Merkel most powerful woman in world: Forbes". Euronews. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011.https://www.forbes.com/profile/angela-merkel/?list=power-women "World's Most Powerful Women". Forbes. Retrieved 29 March 2018.https://www.forbes.com/power-women/list/#tab:overall
- "Angela Merkel – 50 People Who Matter 2010". Archived from the original on 2 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Chancellor Angela Merkel Receives Global Leadership Award". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Baeck, Leo (22 August 2010). "LBI Presents Leo Baeck Medal to Chancellor Angela Merkel". New York: Leo Baeck Institute. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Angela Merkel Receives Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding". ABC News. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- "Indian media: Indira Gandhi Peace Prize to Merkel". BBC News. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
- "TIME Person of the Year 2015: Angela Merkel". Time. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- "Angela Merkel – Laureate International Four Freedoms Award 2016 – Laureates since 1982 – Four Freedoms Awards". 29 March 2019. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019.
- "German Chancellor Merkel to Receive Museum's 2017 Elie Wiesel Award". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Don't shun China, urges Merkel at American prize ceremony". Reuters. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
- Risen, Clay (5 July 2005). "Is Angela Merkel the next Maggie Thatcher?". Slate. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009.
- "The new iron chancellor". The Economist. 26 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011.
- Barro, Josh (18 August 2016). "Hillary is America's Merkel, but not in the way Trump thinks". Business Insider. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. p. 10. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Merkel honours Mohammad cartoonist at press award". Reuters. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012.
- "The Sarrazin Debate: Germany Is Becoming Islamophobic". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Connor, Richard (8 September 2010). "Merkel defends 'Muhammad' cartoonist, condemns Koran-burning". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- BBC: Germany's Central Muslim Council (Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland) criticised Mrs. Merkel for attending the award ceremony. 8 September 2010. A ZMD spokesman, Aiman Mazyek, told public broadcaster Deutschlandradio that the Chancellor was honouring someone "who in our eyes kicked our prophet, and therefore kicked all Muslims". He said giving Mr Westergaard the prize in a "highly charged and heated time" was "highly problematic".
- "Merkel honours Danish Muhammad cartoonist Westergaard". BBC News. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010.
- Buchholz, Christine (9 September 2010). "Merkel's affront to Muslims" (in German). Die linke. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Award for Danish Muhammad Cartoonist: Merkel Defends Press Freedom, Condemns Koran-Burning". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Ehrung des Mohammed-Karikaturisten: Angela Merkels Risiko". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Merkel: Sarrazin spaltet Gesellschaft" (in German). N24 News. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Sprachkritik: "Alternativlos" ist das Unwort des Jahres". Der Spiegel (in German). 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- Prantl, Heribert (24 September 2013). "Alternative dank Merkel". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "German Chancellor Merkel Defends Work of Intelligence Agencies". Der Spiegel. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Germany's Merkel rejects NSA-Stasi comparison". Associated Press. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- Strange, Hannah (20 June 2013). "Angela Merkel refers to internet as 'virgin territory'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Frickel, Claudia (20 June 2013). "Merkel beim Besuch von Obama: Das Netz lacht über Merkels "Internet-Neuland"". Der Focus (Online Version) (in German). Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Traynor, Ian (17 December 2013). "Merkel compared NSA to Stasi in heated encounter with Obama". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Kirschbaum, Erik (4 May 2015). "Merkel defends German intelligence cooperation with NSA". Reuters.
- "Sensible talks urged by Merkel to restore trust with US". Germany News.Net. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Gehört der Islam zu Deutschland? Kauder widerspricht Merkel", Idea, 19 January 2015 (in German)
- "Kauder: 'Der Islam gehört nicht zu Deutschland'" [Kauder: "Islam does not belong to Germany"] (in German). dpa/T-Online. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Merkel splits conservative bloc with green light to refugees". Reuters. 6 September 2015.
- "Germany: 'No Limit' To Refugees We'll Take In". Sky News. 5 September 2015.
- Fouquet, Helene; Delfs, Arne; and Wingrove, Josh (27 May 2017). "Trump Goes His Own Way as G-7 Cobbles Together an Awkward Truce". Bloomberg.
- "Germany's reluctance to speak out against China". Deutsche Welle. 7 July 2020.
- "Merkel is under pressure to cut Germany's ties with China as the Hong Kong crisis triggers a European backlash against Beijing". Business Insider. 8 July 2020.
- "China Is Merkel's Biggest Failure in Office". Foreign Policy. 15 September 2020.
- "China, Germany tight ties will face post-Merkel test". Asia Times. 26 August 2020.
- Philip Oltermann (5 April 2017). "The many faces of Angela Merkel: 26 years of photographing the German chancellor". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- Max Bearak (29 March 2017). "Decades of yearly portraits show how power has transformed Angela Merkel". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "Anna Katarina – IMDb". IMDb. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Paraskos, Michael, In Search of Sixpence (London: Friction Press, 2016).
- Grossman, Samantha. "See the Best of Kate McKinnon's Hilarious Angela Merkel Impression". Time. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- Moran, Lee (11 December 2016). "'SNL' Version of Angela Merkel Is Not Happy Donald Trump Is Time's 'Person of the Year'". HuffPost. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- "Impressions – Angela Merkel". SNL Archives. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- "True total hottie Frau": Die bislang beste Merkel – Parodie kommt von der BBC, Buzzer, 21 January 2016.
- Smagge, Patricia (2016). "Angela Merkel: The Unexpected – Angela Merkel – Die Unerwartete (2016) (In Dutch)". cinemagazine.nl. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- Clark, Claudia. Dear Barack: The Extraordinary Partnership of Barack Obama and Angela Merkel (2021)
- Crossley-Frolick, Katy A. "Domestic Constraints, German Foreign Policy and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding." German Politics and Society 31.3 (2013): 43-75.
- Czuczka, Tony and Alan Crawford. Angela Merkel: A Chancellorship Forged in Crisis (2013) excerpt
- Ferree, Myra Marx. "Angela Merkel: What Does It Mean to Run as a Woman?" German Politics & Society 2006. 24#78: 93-107. online
- Faas, Thorsten. "The German federal election of 2013: Merkel’s triumph, the disappearance of the liberal party, and yet another grand coalition." West European Politics 38.1 (2015): 238-247.
- Kornelius, Stefan. Angela Merkel: The Chancellor and Her World: The Authorized Biography (Alma Books, 2014).
- Masch, Lena, and Oscar W. Gabriel. "How Emotional Displays of Political Leaders Shape Citizen Attitudes: The Case of German Chancellor Angela Merkel." German Politics 29.2 (2020): 158-179.
- Mills, Cliff. Angela Merkel (2008), for middle schools online
- Mushaben, Joyce Marie. "The Best of Times, the Worst of Times: Angela Merkel, the Grand Coalition, and 'Majority Rule' in Germany." German Politics and Society 34.1 (2016): 1-25.
- Mushaben, Joyce Marie. Becoming Madam Chancellor: Angela Merkel and the Berlin Republic (2017) excerpt
- Mushaben, Joyce Marie. "A Spectre Haunting Europe: Angela Merkel and the Challenges of Far-Right Populism." German Politics and Society 38.1 (2020): 7-29.
- Mushaben, Joyce Marie. "The reluctant feminist: Angela Merkel and the modernization of gender politics in Germany." Femina Politica–Zeitschrift für feministische Politikwissenschaft 27.2 (2018): 83–95. online
- Qvortrup, Matthew. Angela Merkel: Europe's most influential leader (2016) excerpt
- Saalfeld, Thomas. "Coalition Governance under Chancellor Merkel's Grand Coalition: A Comparison of the Cabinets Merkel I and Merkel II." German Politics and Society 28.3 (2010): 82-102.
- Schramm, Julia. Fifty Shades of Merkel. (Hoffmann & Campe, 2016), ISBN 978-3-455-50410-1
- Schnee, Christian. "Sticking to her guns or going with the flow: assessing rigidity and flexibility in Angela Merkel’s political decision making." German Politics and Society 37.1 (2019): 24-46.
- Schoen, Harald. "Merely a referendum on Chancellor Merkel? Parties, issues and candidates in the 2009 German federal election." German Politics 20.1 (2011): 92-106.
- Schoen, Harald, and Robert Greszki. "A Third Term for a Popular Chancellor: An Analysis of Voting Behaviour in the 2013 German Federal Election." German Politics 23.4 (2014): 251-267.
- Skard, Torild (2014) "Angela Merkel" in Women of Power – Half a Century of Female presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press, ISBN 978-1-4473-1578-0
- Van Halsema, Catherine. 2019. “Merkel the Mutti? A Linguistic Analysis of Domestic Language in European News Media Coverage of Angela Merkel.” Women & Language. 42(1): 7-22.
- Voigt, Linda. "Get the party started: The social policy of the grand coalition 2013–2017." German Politics 28.3 (2019): 426-443.
- Zehfuss, Maja. "'We Can Do This': Merkel, Migration and the Fantasy of Control." International Political Sociology 15.2 (2021): 172-189.
- Plickert, Philip (Editor) (2017) "Merkel: Eine kritische Bilanz", FinanzBuch Verlag, ISBN 978-3-95972-065-6.
- Margaret Heckel: So regiert die Kanzlerin. Eine Reportage. Piper, München 2009, ISBN 978-3-492-05331-0.
- Volker Resing: Angela Merkel. Die Protestantin. Ein Porträt. St. Benno-Verlag, Leipzig 2009, ISBN 978-3-7462-2648-4.
- Gertrud Höhler: Die Patin. Wie Angela Merkel Deutschland umbaut. Orell Füssli, Zürich 2012, ISBN 978-3-280-05480-2.
- Stefan Kornelius: Angela Merkel. Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-455-50291-6.
- Nikolaus Blome: Angela Merkel – Die Zauderkünstlerin. Pantheon, München 2013, ISBN 978-3-570-55201-8.
- Stephan Hebel: Mutter Blamage – Warum die Nation Angela Merkel und ihre Politik nicht braucht. Westend, Frankfurt am Main 2013, ISBN 978-3-86489-021-5.
- Günther Lachmann, Ralf Georg Reuth: Das erste Leben der Angela M. Piper, München 2013, ISBN 978-3-492-05581-9.
- Judy Dempsey: Das Phänomen Merkel – Deutschlands Macht und Möglichkeiten. Edition Körber-Stiftung, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-89684-097-4.
- Dirk Kurbjuweit: Alternativlos – Merkel, die Deutschen und das Ende der Politik. Hanser, München, 2014, ISBN 978-3-446-24620-1.
- Official Website of Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Merkel's personal website (in German)
- Merkel on her party's website
- Angela Merkel at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Angela Merkel on IMDb
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The Economist
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Forbes
- "Angela Merkel collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Time
- Packer, George (1 December 2014). "The Quiet German". The New Yorker: 46–63. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014. The article describes Angela Merkel's life and career in East Germany and her subsequent rise to Chancellor of Germany following German reunification.
- Deutsche Welle documentary about Merkel's term in office by Deutsche Welle (in English).