Business school

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management.[1] A business school may also be referred to as school of management, management school, school of business administration, or colloquially b-school or biz school. A business school teaches topics such as accounting, administration, business analytics, strategy, economics, entrepreneurship, finance, human resource management, management science, management information systems, international business, logistics, marketing, operations management, organizational psychology, organizational behavior, public relations, research methods, real estate, and supply chain management among others.


There are several forms of business schools, including a school of business, business administration, and management.

  1. Most of the university business schools consist of faculties, colleges, or departments within the university, and predominantly teach business courses (e.g. Mannheim Business School).
  2. In North America, a business school is often understood to be a university program that offers a graduate Master of Business Administration degrees and/or undergraduate bachelor's degrees (e.g. Stanford Graduate School of Business, Harvard Business School, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania).
  3. In Europe and Asia, some universities teach predominantly business courses (e.g. Copenhagen Business School).
  4. Privately owned business school which is not affiliated with any university (e.g. WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management).

Kaplan classifies business schools along four Corners:[1]

  1. Culture (Europe - US): Independent of their actual (physical) location, business schools can be classified according to whether they follow the European or the US model.
  2. Compass (international/global – regional/local): Business schools can be classified along a continuum, with international/ global schools on one end and regional/ local schools on the other.
  3. Capital (public – private): Business schools can either be publicly (state) funded or privately funded, for example through endowments or tuition fees.
  4. Content (teaching – research): Business school can be classified according to whether a school considers teaching or research to be its primary focus.

Notable firsts[edit]

ESCP Europe, France, founded in 1819
Budapest Business School, Hungary, the first public business school founded in 1857
Wharton School, US, founded in 1881
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, founded in 1898
First building of HEC Montréal in Montreal
Founded in 1907, HEC Montréal is the oldest School of Management in Canada.
First building of Hanken in Helsinki
Hanken School of Economics, Finland, founded in 1909
ESSEC in France and Singapore was the first business school being AACSB accredited outside North America in 1997

The first business schools appeared in Europe in the eighteenth century and multiplied from the beginning of the nineteenth century.[2] As the French scholar Adrien Jean-Guy Passant points out, the oldest business school in the world is, to this day, ESCP Business School, founded in Paris in October 1819, under the name ‘Special School of Commerce and Industry’, followed by the business school of the Università Ca'Foscari in Italy which was opened in August 1868 under the name ‘Higher School of Commerce of Venice’.[3] If, in Europe, business schools are generally recognized as the first educational establishments to have taught commerce, it was however the engineering schools which, at the very beginning of the nineteenth century, provided a commercial education at higher level, particularly within the Prague Polytechnic (from 1806) and the Vienna Polytechnic (from 1815).[4]


Common degrees are as follows

Use of case studies[edit]

Some business schools structure their teaching around the use of case studies (i.e. the case method). Case studies have been used in Graduate and Undergraduate business education for nearly one hundred years. Business cases are historical descriptions of actual business situations. Typically, information is presented about a business firm's products, markets, competition, financial structure, sales volumes, management, employees and other factors influencing the firm's success. The length of a business case study may range from two or three pages to 30 pages, or more.

Business schools often obtain case studies published by the Harvard Business School, INSEAD, London Business School, the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan, the Richard Ivey School of Business at The University of Western Ontario, the Darden School at the University of Virginia, IESE, other academic institutions, or case clearing houses (such as The Case Centre). Harvard's most popular case studies include Lincoln Electric Co.[46] and Google, Inc.[47]

Students are expected to scrutinize the case study and prepare to discuss strategies and tactics that the firm should employ in the future. Three different methods have been used in business case teaching:

  1. Preparing case-specific questions to be answered by the student. This is used with short cases intended for Undergraduate students. The underlying concept is that such students need specific guidance to be able to analyze case studies.
  2. Problem-solving analysis is the second method initiated by the Harvard Business School which is by far the most widely used method in MBA and executive development programs. The underlying concept is that with enough practice (hundreds of case analyses) students develop intuitive skills for analyzing and resolving complex business situations. Successful implementation of this method depends heavily on the skills of the discussion leader.
  3. A generally applicable strategic planning approach. This third method does not require students to analyze hundreds of cases. A strategic planning model is provided and students are instructed to apply the steps of the model to six – and up to a dozen cases – during a semester. This is sufficient to develop their ability to analyze a complex situation, generate a variety of possible strategies and to select the best ones. In effect, students learn a generally applicable approach to analyze cases studies and real situations.[48] This approach does not make any extraordinary demands on the artistic and dramatic talents of the teacher. Consequently, most professors are capable of supervising the application of this method.

History of business cases[edit]

When Harvard Business School started operating in 1908, the faculty realized that there were no textbooks suitable for a graduate program in business.[49] Their first solution to this problem involved interviewing leading practitioners of business and writing detailed accounts of what these managers were doing, based partly on the case method already in use at Harvard Law School. Of course, the professors could not present these cases as practices to be emulated, because there were no criteria available for determining what would succeed and what would not succeed. So the professors instructed their students to read the cases and to come to class prepared to discuss the cases and to offer recommendations for appropriate courses of action. The basic outlines of this method still operate in business-school curricula as of 2016.

Other approaches[edit]

In contrast to the case method some schools use a skills-based approach in teaching business. This approach emphasizes quantitative methods, in particular operations research, management information systems, statistics, organizational behavior, modeling and simulation, and decision science. The leading institution in this method is the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University. The goal is to provide students a set of tools that will prepare them to tackle and solve problems.

Another important approach used in business school is the use of business games that are used in different disciplines such as business, economics, management, etc. Some colleges are blending many of these approaches throughout their degree programs, and even blending the method of delivery for each of these approaches. A study from by Inside Higher Ed and the Babson Survey Research Group[50] shows that there is still disagreement as to the effectiveness of the approaches but the reach and accessibility is proving to be more and more appealing. Liberal arts colleges in the United States like New England College,[51] Wesleyan University,[52] and Bryn Mawr College are now offering complete online degrees in many business curricula despite the controversy that surrounds the learning method.

There are also several business schools which still rely on the lecture method to give students a basic business education. Lectures are generally given from the professor's point of view, and rarely require interaction from the students unless notetaking is required. Lecture as a method of teaching in business schools has been criticized by experts for reducing the incentive and individualism in the learning experience.[53]

Executive education[edit]

In addition to teaching students, many business schools run Executive Education programs. These may be either open programs or company-specific programs. Executives may also acquire an MBA title in an Executive MBA program within university of business or from top ranked business schools. Many business schools seek close co-operation with business.[54]


There are three main accreditation agencies for business schools in the United States: ACBSP, AACSB, and the IACBE. In Europe, the EQUIS accreditation system is run by the EFMD. The AMBA accredits MBA programmes and other post-graduate business programmes in 75 countries; its sister organisation the Business Graduates Association (BGA), accredits business schools, based on the impact they make on students, employers and the wider community and society, in terms of ethics and responsible management practices.

Global Master of Business Administration ranking[edit]

Each year, well-known business publications such as The Economist,[55] Eduniversal,[56] U.S. News & World Report,[57][58] Fortune, Financial Times,[59] Business Week,[60] Expansion and The Wall Street Journal[61] publish rankings of selected MBA programs and business schools that, while controversial in their methodology,[62] nevertheless can directly influence the prestige of schools that achieve high scores. Academic research is also considered to be an important feature and popular way to gauge the prestige of business schools.[63][64][65] Business schools share the common purpose of developing global managerial talent and to this end, business schools are encouraged to accelerate global engagement strategies on the foundations of collaboration and innovation.[66]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Kaplan, Andreas (2018). "Andreas Kaplan: A school is "a building that has four walls…with tomorrow inside": Toward the reinvention of the business school". Business Horizons. 61: 599–608. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2018.03.010.
  2. ^ "Adrien Jean-Guy Passant: Issues in European business education in the mid-nineteenth century: A comparative perspective, Business History, Volume 58, Issue 7, pp.1118-1145, 2016". doi:10.1080/00076791.2016.1158251. S2CID 155774456. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Adrien Jean-Guy Passant: À l’origine des écoles de commerce : ESCP Business School, la passion d’entreprendre, L'Harmattan, 2020, ISBN 978-2-343-18659-7.
  4. ^ "Adrien Jean-Guy Passant: The early emergence of European commercial education in the nineteenth century: Insights from higher engineering schools, Business History, Volume 61, Issue 6, pp.1051-1082, 2019". doi:10.1080/00076791.2018.1448063. S2CID 158445441. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ a b Rodrigues, Lúcia Lima. "Aula do Comércio (1759-1844): Primeiro Estabelecimento Governamental de Ensino de Contabilidade" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Ordem dos Técnicos Oficiais de Contas. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  6. ^ "Business Schools and business programs - Graduate International". Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  7. ^ Passant, Adrien Jean-Guy (2018). "Between filial piety and managerial opportunism: the strategic use of the history of a family business after the buyout by non-family purchasers". Entreprises et Histoire. 91 (2): 62. doi:10.3917/eh.091.0062.
  8. ^ Mansoor Iqbal (2 December 2015). "The 10 Top European Business Schools According to International Recruiters". TopMBA. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  9. ^ "The University of Antwerp, Belgium". TheCompleteUniversity. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  10. ^ "BBS History". Archived from the original on 2016-11-28. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  11. ^ Ginibrière, Gaëlle (14 May 2013). "Business Schools: Rouen and Reims unite to view larger". Lefigaro (in French). Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  12. ^ "Wharton History". The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2012-06-03.
  13. ^ "Haas School of Business". Haas School of Business. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  14. ^ "History of Haas". Haas School of Business. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  15. ^ "Chicago Booth School of Business". Chicago Booth School of Business. Retrieved 2 Dec 2014.
  16. ^ "HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management". Archived from the original on 2018-10-15. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  17. ^ "Definition: Betriebswirtschaftlehre (BWL)" (in German). Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  18. ^ Tuck School of Business | History Archived 2013-09-03 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
  19. ^ "Birmingham Business School". The Independent. London. 2010-12-12. Archived from the original on 2021-02-14. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
  20. ^ History | Desautels Archived 2017-08-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ "History of the School". SGH. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  22. ^ "1908-1917 | Kellogg School of Management | Northwestern University". Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  23. ^ "History of the MBA MBA Friday Facts". 22 August 2013.
  24. ^ Kaplan, Andreas M (2014). "European Management and European Business Schools: Insights from the History of Business Schools". European Management Journal. 32 (4): 529–534. doi:10.1016/j.emj.2014.03.006.
  25. ^ "HANKEN Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration". Helsinki. Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  26. ^ Archived from the original on 2018-03-27. Retrieved 2018-12-19. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. ^ "History of the Kelley School : Academic Bulletin".
  28. ^ "Chicago Booth History". Chicago Booth School of Business. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 19 Jan 2017.
  29. ^ "The growth and development of NHH". Archived from the original on 2014-08-12. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
  30. ^ Gonzales, Angela (2007-02-05). "Thunderbird school changes name as it seizes new opportunities – Phoenix Business Journal". Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  31. ^ "Thunderbird history showcased through Arizona Memory Project – Thunderbird School of Global Management". Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  32. ^ "Wits Business School". Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  33. ^ "Gordon Institute of Business Science". GIBS. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  34. ^ XLRI- Xavier School of Management
  35. ^ Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management
  36. ^ "History - Faculty of Management Studies".
  37. ^ "About INSEEC U. | Leader in French Private Higher Education". Monaco. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  38. ^ "INSEEC U. IS THE LEADER IN THE FRENCH PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION". APAX. Archived from the original on 2020-11-29. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  39. ^ "Enseignement supérieur : les écoles d'Inseec U valorisées près de 1 milliard". Les Echos (in French). 2019-01-27. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  40. ^ "Classement des Ecoles de Commerce 2020 : le Top 10 budget groupe". Le Parisien Etudiant (in French). Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  41. ^ "Subscribe to read | Financial Times". Retrieved 2020-09-08. Cite uses generic title (help)
  42. ^ "IUM again in the Top 100 MBA programs worldwide!". International University of Monaco. 2017-10-27. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  43. ^ "IEDC – Bled School of Management". The Independent. London. 2010-12-21. Archived from the original on 2017-07-06. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
  44. ^ "Charmed by China". Business Because. Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  45. ^ "The Denver MBA".
  46. ^ "Lincoln Electric Co". Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  47. ^ "Google Inc". Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  48. ^ "Chapter 1.2. A Model for Strategic Planning, Analyzing Cases and Decision Making". 2006-02-22. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  49. ^ Yumlembam, Dayananda. "MICA innovation to help Harvard business school sharpen teaching tools". Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 9 November 2015. When Harvard Business School was started, its faculty members realized that there were no textbooks suitable to a graduate program in business. That was when they decided to use case studies which are detailed accounts of innovative methods and practices that managers follow.
  50. ^ Kolowich, Steve (29 June 2012). "Online Learning and Liberal Arts Colleges". Inside Highered. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  51. ^ "Bisk Education".
  52. ^ "Liberal arts college explore uses of 'blended' online learning -".
  53. ^ J. Scott Armstrong (2012). "Natural Learning in Higher Education". Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning.
  54. ^ Schreuder, Hein, Jeannet, Jean-Pierre (15 April 2015). From Coal to Biotech The Transformation of DSM with Business School Support. ISBN 9783662462997. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  55. ^ "Which MBA?". Economist. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  56. ^ "Eduniversal Rating: Palmes Of Excellence". Eduniversal Ranking. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  57. ^ "Best Undergraduate Business Programs | Rankings | US News". Archived from the original on 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  58. ^ "Best Business School Rankings | MBA Program Rankings | US News". 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  59. ^ "Business school rankings from the Financial Times - Global MBA Rankings 2012". Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  60. ^ "Business Schools". Businessweek. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  61. ^ "Business Schools - MBA Rankings and Executive Education Programs -". Archived from the original on 2014-01-16. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  62. ^ "From Best Business School to Best MBA Fit for You". Best Match. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
  63. ^ J. Scott Armstrong (1994). "Learning versus Teaching: Reply to Commentaries" (PDF). Interfaces. 24: 39–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-27. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
  64. ^ "Business School Prestige – Research versus Teaching" (PDF). Journal of Marketing. American Marketing Association. 59: 101–106. 1995.[permanent dead link]
  65. ^ J. Scott Armstrong and Tad Sperry (1994). "Book Reviewed: Peter Robinson, Snapshots from Hell, New York: Warner Books, 1994" (PDF). Interfaces. 24: 13–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-20.
  66. ^ Choudaha, Rahul (September 19, 2017). "Accelerating Global Engagement With Collaboration and Innovation". AACSB International.

External links[edit]