Draft:National Revolution period in Indonesia
Republic of Indonesia
|Anthem: "Indonesia Raya" (1945)|
(English: "Great Indonesia")
|Status||Government in exile|
|Government||Unitary constitutional republic|
|Legislature||Central Indonesian National Committee|
|Historical era||Indonesian National Revolution|
|17 August 1945|
|18 August 1945[c]|
|15 November 1946|
|17 January 1948|
|19 December 1948|
|2 November 1949|
|27 December 1949|
|Today part of||Indonesia|
|History of Indonesia|
After the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, the Republic of Indonesia was formed as a revolutionary and partially recognised republican government established in the Dutch East Indies. This period also known as the National Revolution period in Indonesia, where during that time Indonesian capital was relocated to Yogyakarta after Jakarta fell to the Dutch.
The government was established in 1945 with the system of unitary republic after the adoption of the 1945 constitution, the government lasted from 1945 to 1949 when the Dutch recognized the Indonesian independence and the United States of Indonesia was established under the 1949 Constitution.
Adoption of the constitution
1945 and the dutch landing
Based on the Civil Affairs Agreement, on August 23, 1945 the British and Dutch troops landed in Sabang, Aceh. On 15 September 1945, British troops as representatives of the Allies arrived in Batavia, accompanied by Dr. Charles van der Plas, Dutch representative to the Allies. The presence of these Allied troops, accompanied by NICA (Netherland Indies Civil Administration – the civil administration of the Dutch East Indies) led by Dr. Hubertus J van Mook, he was prepared to open negotiations on the basis of a speech on the radio broadcast of Queen Wilhelmina in 1942 (statkundige concepti or the conception of the state), but he announced that he would not talk to Soekarno who he considered to have cooperated with the Japanese. Queen Wilhelmina's speech emphasized that in the future a commonwealth would be formed, whose members would be the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies, under the leadership of the Queen of the Netherlands.
When the british troops landed in java, they're shocked by the newly-born Indonesian Republic, a rudimentary administration backed by nationalists militia. The British soon discovered that the republican regimes on Java and Sumatra were solidly linked to Indonesian masses.
In November 10, 1945, A battle broke out in Surabaya as Indonesian nationalist fought against the British troops. The Allied Forces, led by the British Army, launched a massive attack, deploying the most-modern weaponry at their disposal, including 24,000 troops, 25 pounders and 3.7 howitzer artilleries, five Destroyer warships, 24 Sherman tanks and 24 Thunderbolts and Mosquito bombers to occupy the city. It was reported that in the first day alone, the Allied Forces dropped about 500 bombs. It was only after three weeks that the Allies Forces could secure the city. As a consequence, the city was devastated while casualties were immense, taking of more than 40,000 lives, mostly civilians.
Moved the capital to Yogyakarta
On September 29, 1945, the Dutch army and NICA had entered Jakarta. On the other hand, there were still remnants of the Japanese army that had not been withdrawn. Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta, and a number of other high-ranking Indonesian government officials tried to defend the capital as much as possible.
The Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Sultan Hamengkubuwana IX, on January 2, 1946 sent a courier to Jakarta to deliver a message to President Sukarno. Sultan Hamengkubuwana IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII, leaders of another kingdom in Yogyakarta, namely the Duchy of Pakualaman, offered Yogyakarta as the temporary capital of Indonesia. Due to the increasingly unsafe conditions in Jakarta, finally President Soekarno and his deputy Moh. Hatta, accepted the offer of Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, to move the center of the temporary government to Yogyakarta on January 4, 1946.
Government in Exile
Transfer of sovereignty
The government in the early years of Indonesian independence was a combination of liberal democratic systems, alternating between democracies Western European-style parliamentary and US-style presidential democracies. Along with carrying the heavy burden of revolution for four years (1945–1949), in the form of diplomatic efforts and the war of independence against Netherlands and its allies, as well as the magnitude of the “nation building” challenge to a young nation, Indonesia's newly built democracy the father of the nation is not able to move forward quickly in building the necessary institutions for the long-term democratization process. 
The 1945 Constitution turned out to be not strong enough to be the basis democracy because it is very general and unequal in distribution institutional powers, while elections cannot be held immediately possible, because the country is facing various emergency situations which threaten the existence of state sovereignty. Formed cabinets between the period of the war of independence (1945–1949) can only survive in a matter of months, so it is not able to consolidate meaningful democracy. The country of Indonesia which has just handed over accept sovereignty with the Netherlands on December 27, 1949, had became a federal state under the 1949 RIS Constitution.
Indonesia formed several wartime cabinets during the war of independence, most of the cabinets only lasted for few months.
|Name of Cabinet||Head of Cabinet||Period of Office|
|Presidential Cabinet||Sukarno||2 September 1945 – 14 November 1945|
|First Sjahrir Cabinet||Sutan Sjahrir||14 November 1945 – 12 March 1946|
|Second Sjahrir Cabinet||12 March 1946 – 2 October 1946|
|Third Sjahrir Cabinet||2 October 1946 – 27 June 1947|
|First Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet||Amir Sjarifuddin||3 July 1947 – 11 November 1947|
|Second Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet||11 November 1947 – 29 January 1948|
|First Hatta Cabinet||Mohammad Hatta||29 January 1948 – 19 December 1949|
|Emergency Cabinet||Sjafruddin Prawiranegara||22 December 1948 – 13 July 1949|
|Second Hatta Cabinet||Mohammad Hatta||4 August – 14 December 1949|
Even if Indonesia wasn't recognized by the League of Nations nor the UN in its early struggle for independence, Indonesia had established formal relationship and a recognition from states with mostly from the arab world.
The first ever country to recognize Indonesia as a de jure and de facto Independent sovereign state was Egypt, Egypt had established formal relation and recognized the independence of Indonesia on 10 June 1947.
Various military forces and militias were participated in the war. Indonesia had formed an armed forces from 1945 to 1947, which later became part of the modern TNI.
Economy during the war
Economic conditions at the beginning of the independence period were still unstable, because at this time Indonesia was experiencing a severe economic crisis. In the post-independence period between 1945 and 1950, Indonesia's economic condition was hard. There was hyperinflation or an extreme increase in the prices of goods. One of the causes of inflation is the uncontrolled circulation of more than one currency. At that time, the Indonesian government stated that there were three currencies in force in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. The currency of De Javasche Bank (DJB), the currency of the Dutch East Indies government, and the currency of the Japanese occupation were recognized and used together.
An economic blockade was also carried out by the Dutch to prevent the entry of weapons and military equipment into Indonesia and to prevent the release of plantation products belonging to the Netherlands and other foreign assets.
In order to overcome the economic crisis, the Indonesian government carried out several policies.
ORI as currency
1946 Economic conference
- From August 17, 1945 to November 11, 1945, dissolved by the Vice-Presidential Edict No.X when the cabinet was no longer responsible for the president.
- From November 11, 1945 until December 27, 1949. When the KNIP was given the legislative abilities, the cabinets were no longer responsible for the President, instead it was taken by the Prime Ministers. Making the government of Indonesia, a parliamentary in nature.
- Constitutional amandement by promulgation of the Vice-Presidential Edict No.X
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