Draft:National Revolution period in Indonesia

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Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia
1945–1949
Flag of National Revolution period in Indonesia
Anthem: "Indonesia Raya" (1945)
(English: "Great Indonesia")
Occupied areas in Java (red), after the creation of Van Mook Line, 1948.
Occupied areas in Java (red), after the creation of Van Mook Line, 1948.
StatusGovernment in exile
(1948–1949)
CapitalDjakarta (1945–1946)
Yogyakarta (1946–1948)
Capital-in-exileBukittinggi (1948–1949)
Common languagesIndonesian
GovernmentUnitary constitutional republic
President 
• 1945–1949
Sukarno
Vice-President 
• 1945–1949
Mohammad Hatta
Prime Minister 
• 1945–1947
Sutan Sjahrir
• 1947–1948
Amir Sjarifuddin
• 1948–1949
Mohammad Hatta
LegislatureCentral Indonesian National Committee
Historical eraIndonesian National Revolution
17 August 1945
18 August 1945[c]
15 November 1946
Jul–Aug 1947
17 January 1948
19 December 1948
2 November 1949
27 December 1949
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Japanese-occupied Dutch East Indies
United States of Indonesia
Today part ofIndonesia

After the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, the Republic of Indonesia was formed as a revolutionary and partially recognised republican government established in the Dutch East Indies.[1] This period also known as the National Revolution period in Indonesia, where during that time Indonesian capital was relocated to Yogyakarta after Jakarta fell to the Dutch.

The government was established in 1945 with the system of unitary republic after the adoption of the 1945 constitution, the government lasted from 1945 to 1949 when the Dutch recognized the Indonesian independence and the United States of Indonesia was established under the 1949 Constitution.

History[edit]

Adoption of the constitution[edit]

1945 and the dutch landing[edit]

Based on the Civil Affairs Agreement,[2] on August 23, 1945 the British and Dutch troops landed in Sabang, Aceh. On 15 September 1945, British troops as representatives of the Allies arrived in Batavia, accompanied by Dr. Charles van der Plas, Dutch representative to the Allies. The presence of these Allied troops, accompanied by NICA (Netherland Indies Civil Administration – the civil administration of the Dutch East Indies) led by Dr. Hubertus J van Mook, he was prepared to open negotiations on the basis of a speech on the radio broadcast of Queen Wilhelmina in 1942 (statkundige concepti or the conception of the state), but he announced that he would not talk to Soekarno who he considered to have cooperated with the Japanese. Queen Wilhelmina's speech emphasized that in the future a commonwealth would be formed,[3] whose members would be the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies, under the leadership of the Queen of the Netherlands.

When the british troops landed in java, they're shocked by the newly-born Indonesian Republic, a rudimentary administration backed by nationalists militia. The British soon discovered that the republican regimes on Java and Sumatra were solidly linked to Indonesian masses.[4]

Bung Tomo, an iconic image of the National Revolution

In November 10, 1945, A battle broke out in Surabaya as Indonesian nationalist fought against the British troops. The Allied Forces, led by the British Army, launched a massive attack, deploying the most-modern weaponry at their disposal, including 24,000 troops, 25 pounders and 3.7 howitzer artilleries, five Destroyer warships, 24 Sherman tanks and 24 Thunderbolts and Mosquito bombers to occupy the city. It was reported that in the first day alone, the Allied Forces dropped about 500 bombs. It was only after three weeks that the Allies Forces could secure the city. As a consequence, the city was devastated while casualties were immense, taking of more than 40,000 lives, mostly civilians.

Moved the capital to Yogyakarta[edit]

On September 29, 1945, the Dutch army and NICA had entered Jakarta. On the other hand, there were still remnants of the Japanese army that had not been withdrawn. Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta, and a number of other high-ranking Indonesian government officials tried to defend the capital as much as possible.

The Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Sultan Hamengkubuwana IX, on January 2, 1946 sent a courier to Jakarta to deliver a message to President Sukarno. Sultan Hamengkubuwana IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII, leaders of another kingdom in Yogyakarta, namely the Duchy of Pakualaman, offered Yogyakarta as the temporary capital of Indonesia. Due to the increasingly unsafe conditions in Jakarta, finally President Soekarno and his deputy Moh. Hatta, accepted the offer of Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, to move the center of the temporary government to Yogyakarta on January 4, 1946.

1946[edit]

1947–1948[edit]

Government in Exile[edit]

Recognition[edit]

Transfer of sovereignty[edit]

Government (1945–1949)[edit]

The government in the early years of Indonesian independence was a combination of liberal democratic systems, alternating between democracies Western European-style parliamentary and US-style presidential democracies.[5] Along with carrying the heavy burden of revolution for four years (1945–1949), in the form of diplomatic efforts and the war of independence against Netherlands and its allies, as well as the magnitude of the “nation building” challenge to a young nation, Indonesia's newly built democracy the father of the nation is not able to move forward quickly in building the necessary institutions for the long-term democratization process. [6]

The 1945 Constitution turned out to be not strong enough to be the basis democracy because it is very general and unequal in distribution institutional powers, while elections cannot be held immediately possible, because the country is facing various emergency situations which threaten the existence of state sovereignty. Formed cabinets between the period of the war of independence (1945–1949) can only survive in a matter of months, so it is not able to consolidate meaningful democracy. The country of Indonesia which has just handed over accept sovereignty with the Netherlands on December 27, 1949, had became a federal state under the 1949 RIS Constitution.

Legislature[edit]

Cabinets[edit]

Indonesia formed several wartime cabinets during the war of independence, most of the cabinets only lasted for few months.

Name of Cabinet Head of Cabinet Period of Office

War of Independence[edit]

Presidential Cabinet Sukarno 2 September 1945 – 14 November 1945
First Sjahrir Cabinet Sutan Sjahrir 14 November 1945 – 12 March 1946
Second Sjahrir Cabinet 12 March 1946 – 2 October 1946
Third Sjahrir Cabinet 2 October 1946 – 27 June 1947
First Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet Amir Sjarifuddin 3 July 1947 – 11 November 1947
Second Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet 11 November 1947 – 29 January 1948
First Hatta Cabinet Mohammad Hatta 29 January 1948 – 19 December 1949
Emergency Cabinet Sjafruddin Prawiranegara 22 December 1948 – 13 July 1949
Second Hatta Cabinet Mohammad Hatta 4 August – 14 December 1949

Foreign relations[edit]

Even if Indonesia wasn't recognized by the League of Nations nor the UN in its early struggle for independence, Indonesia had established formal relationship and a recognition from states with mostly from the arab world.

The first ever country to recognize Indonesia as a de jure and de facto Independent sovereign state was Egypt,[7][8] Egypt had established formal relation and recognized the independence of Indonesia on 10 June 1947.[9]

The second country to recognize Indonesia as a independent and sovereign state was Syria in 1947.[10]

Military (1945–1947)[edit]

Various military forces and militias were participated in the war. Indonesia had formed an armed forces from 1945 to 1947, which later became part of the modern TNI.

Economy during the war[edit]

Economic conditions at the beginning of the independence period were still unstable, because at this time Indonesia was experiencing a severe economic crisis. In the post-independence period between 1945 and 1950, Indonesia's economic condition was hard. There was hyperinflation or an extreme increase in the prices of goods. One of the causes of inflation is the uncontrolled circulation of more than one currency. At that time, the Indonesian government stated that there were three currencies in force in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. The currency of De Javasche Bank (DJB), the currency of the Dutch East Indies government, and the currency of the Japanese occupation were recognized and used together.

An economic blockade was also carried out by the Dutch to prevent the entry of weapons and military equipment into Indonesia and to prevent the release of plantation products belonging to the Netherlands and other foreign assets.

In order to overcome the economic crisis, the Indonesian government carried out several policies.

National loan[edit]

another reference link

ORI as currency[edit]

Rice diplomacy[edit]

Article for reference

1946 Economic conference[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ From August 17, 1945 to November 11, 1945, dissolved by the Vice-Presidential Edict No.X when the cabinet was no longer responsible for the president.
  2. ^ From November 11, 1945 until December 27, 1949. When the KNIP was given the legislative abilities, the cabinets were no longer responsible for the President, instead it was taken by the Prime Ministers. Making the government of Indonesia, a parliamentary in nature.
  3. ^ Constitutional amandement by promulgation of the Vice-Presidential Edict No.X

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The First 6 Countries to Recognize Indonesia's Independence". Gramedia. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  2. ^ Coles, Harry Lewis (1950). "Civil Affairs Agreements for Liberated Territories". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 267: 131–139. doi:10.1177/000271625026700115. S2CID 143548041. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  3. ^ "The Queen Looks at the Future(1943)". dnbl. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  4. ^ Kahin 1963, p. 560.
  5. ^ "Demokrasi Indonesia Masa Revolusi Kemerdekaan (1945–1949)". Kompas. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  6. ^ "government system during war of independence" (PDF). bapennas.go.id. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  7. ^ M. Riza Sihbudi (1997). Indonesia Timur Tengah masalah dan prospek. Gema Insani Press. p. 31. ISBN 9789795614753. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  8. ^ "Renewing beacons of RI-Egypt cooperation". Jakarta Post. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Negara Pertama yang Mengakui Kemerdekaan Indonesia, Ada dari Afrika". Kristina - detikEdu. Detik.com. 4 August 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  10. ^ "Hubungan Bilateral Indonesia - Suriah". Kemenlu.go.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 30 September 2021.

Further reading[edit]

  • Rahardjo, Pamoe (1995). Badan Keamanan Rakyat (BKR). Cikal Bakal Tentara Nasional Indonesia. Yayasan Pembela Tanah Air (YAPETA).
  • Kahin, George McTurnan (1952). Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Read
  • TNI, Markas Besar (2000). Sejarah TNI Jilid I (1945–1949). Jakarta: Pusat Sejarah Dan Tradisi TNI. ISBN 979-9421-01-2.
  • Hatta, Mohammad (2011). Untuk Negeriku Menuju Gerbang Kemerdekaan, Sebuah Otobiografi. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas. ISBN 978-979-709-540-6.
  • Kahin, George McTurnan (1963). Major governments of Asia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Read
  • Surjomiharjo, J. R., Abdurrachman (1990). PDRI, Pemerintah Darurat Republik Indonesia. Masyarakat Sejarawan Indonesia. ISBN 9789798177002.